Caracalla


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Caracalla

(kărəkăl`ə), 188–217, Roman emperor (211–17); son of Septimius SeverusSeverus
or Septimius Severus
(Lucius Septimius Severus) , 146–211, Roman emperor (193–211), b. Africa. He was campaigning in Pannonia and Illyria when the emperor Commodus was murdered.
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. His real name was Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, and he received his nickname from the caracalla, a Gallic tunic he regularly wore. He was made caesar in 196 and augustus in 198, but he resented having to share these honors with his brother Geta. Early in his career he revealed his ruthless character by bringing about the downfall of his father-in-law, the political leader Plautianus, through false reports. After Septimius Severus died, leaving the empire to his two sons, Caracalla murdered (212) the more popular Geta and ordered a general massacre of Geta's followers and sympathizers (including the jurist PapinianPapinian
(Aemilius Papinianus) , d. 212, Roman jurist. He was a close friend of the Roman emperor Septimius Severus, under whom he was libellorum magister [master of the rolls] and later Praetorian prefect; but Severus' son Caracalla had Papinian put to death for reasons
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). He thus ushered in a reign infamous for cruelty and bloodshed. Caracalla did, however, pacify the German frontier. He also extended Roman citizenship to all free inhabitants of the empire, not out of generosity but to increase his income from taxes in order to meet staggering expenses. He tried to buy popularity with his soldiers and planned an ambitious campaign to extend his father's conquests into old Persia. When leading an expedition in Asia, Caracalla was murdered by MacrinusMacrinus
(Marcus Opellius Severus Macrinus) , 164–218, Roman emperor (217–18). A Moorish officer, prefect of the Praetorian Guard under Caracalla, he was threatened by the emperor's murderous plans.
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, who succeeded him. The famous Baths of Caracalla were erected in his reign.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Caracalla

 

(also Septimius Bassianus Caracalla; imperial name, Marcus Aurelius Antoninus). Born 186, in Lugdunum; died 217, near Edessa. Roman emperor from 211.

At first Caracalla ruled jointly with his brother Geta, but after murdering his brother in 212, he ruled alone. Gaining the loyalty of the soldiers by raising their pay and giving them rewards, he exerted pressure on the senatorial and municipal leaders. He instituted a reign of terror, during which there took place the execution of aristocrats and the famous jurist Papinian and the massacre of the inhabitants of Alexandria, who opposed a supplementary conscription into the army. In 212 he issued the Constitutio Antoniniana, an edict which granted citizenship to almost all the inhabitants of the provinces, making them equal to the Romans as subjects and taxpayers. In 213 he undertook a campaign against the Germanic tribes of the Chatti and Ala-manni on the Rhine and then moved against the Iazyges and Carpi on the Danube. These were followed by a successful campaign into Parthia in 215. During a new Parthian campaign, in 217, he was killed by conspirators led by the Praetorian prefect Opellius Macrinus.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Caracalla

Roman emperor (211–217) massacred many thousands [Rom. Hist.: EB (1963) IV, 825]
Allusions—Cultural, Literary, Biblical, and Historical: A Thematic Dictionary. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Caracalla

real name Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, original name Bassianus. 188--217 ad, Roman emperor (211--17): ruled with cruelty and extravagance; assassinated
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
""We go forward with the culture minister to stop fast food construction in the archaeological area of the Baths of Caracalla. The wonders of Rome must be protected, Raggi wrote on Twitter after Bonisoli's announcement.
JBEIL, Lebanon: Lebanese dance troupe Caracalla paid tribute to the ancient city of Byblos Friday night with its spectacle "Finiqia: The Legend Lives On." Presenting 85 performers in 500 stunning costumes, Ivan Caracalla's show blended the company's trademark mix of ballet and folkloric dancing with a dash of theater and musical numbers.
Imre sets out to reconcile the apparently progressive and avant-garde Constitutio Antoniniana with the autocratic Roman Emperor who promulgated it-- Caracalla, known for his murderous rages, militaristic iconography, and assertion that his regime was divinely sanctioned.
He has also composed in numerous international orchestras as well, including the Royal Opera House in Oman, the Caracalla Dance Theatre and the Macedonian Philharmonic Orchestra.
Thursday May 11th and Saturday May 13th, 7:30pm After the stunning success of Caracalla's spectacular musical Kan Ya Ma Kan at the ROHM in 2013, the company returns with Sailing Through Time, a new production themed on travels across lands of the ancient world, with a sumptuous and ever-changing array of costume and dance.
But at the heart of the Diva collection is its signature shape, inspired by the Roman Baths of Caracalla.
Meanwhile, coinciding with the celebration of Arab Tourism Day, which the kingdom celebrates annually on February 25th, but in 2014 the culture and Antiquities Authority in Bahrain hosted in its National Theatre the world premiere (Once Upon a Time) play, a Lebanese based Caracalla theater, directed by Ivan Caracalla.
Another highlight is a performance by Caracalla Dance Theatre, which is known as the Middle East's largest contemporary dance troupe, featuring a star-studded cast of more than 75 artists.
C'est le cas de la troupe du ballet Caracalla du Liban, l'invite traditionnel du festival.
A LADY In New Zealand has sent me seed of Vigna caracalla, which is variously known as Phaseolus caracalla, snail flower, snail bean, corkscrew flower or the snail vine (caracol is Portugese for snail).
Down under A LADY In New Zealand has sent me seed of Vigna caracalla, which is variously known as Phaseolus caracalla, snail flower, snail bean, corkscrew flower or the snail vine (caracol is Portugese for snail).