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A dark-brown mass formed by heating sugar in the presence of ammonium salts.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a confectionery product of sugar. Caramel is a concentrated nutritional food product that contains a complex of sugars (sucrose, maltose, and glucose) and fruits, berries, nut kernels, cocoa, and other ingredients.

There are hard and filled caramels. The hard caramel consists of a caramel mass obtained by boiling down a sugar solution with starch syrup or invert syrup to a dry-matter content of 97–99 percent. In contrast to sugar, from which it is prepared, the cooled caramel mass has an amorphous structure, is transparent, and is light yellow in color. Within a certain temperature range (75°-90°C) the caramel mass has a plastic texture. To impart flavor properties to the hard caramel, food acids (citric and tartaric), essences, and colorings are added and evenly distributed throughout the plastic caramel mass before it is shaped. Transparent caramel is shaped in the form of rectangular bars (such as Teatral’naia and Vzletnaia) or in the form of small figures of various shapes (sour drops). In manufacturing non-transparent caramel (lemon and orange slices), the caramel mass is processed on pulling machines to saturate it with air. After shaping, the caramel is cooled, whereupon it hardens and acquires the brittleness and firmness necessary for subsequent wrapping and packing or finishing. In preparing filled caramel, the caramel mass is used to make only the outer casing, and before shaping a filling is introduced (such as fruit or berry, liqueur, honey, and milk).

Caramel is hygroscopic and to maintain its stability duringstorage it is covered with a protective layer of finely granulatedsugar, cocoa powder, chocolate glaze, or a moisture-resistanthigh-fat mixture and wrapped or packaged in tins or waxedcardboard boxes. Caramel manufacture in the USSR is com-pletely mechanized.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
It does not overpower the sweet chocolate and caramel, but rather balances it out to keep it from being too sweet.
MAKES 8 LOLLIES INGREDIENTS 70g Lindt Excellence Cocoa 70% Dark Choc 70g Lindt Milk Chocolate bar 120g salted caramel sauce 1.
The confection's modern combination showcases the daring taste of tangy apple caramel topped with a dusting of warm and spicy ghost chili sea salt.
For example, an easy way to make caramel is just to boil pure condensed milk until it goes fudgy but I don't think this gives an authentic or a desirable finish.
Passion fruit 'crme caramels' with raspberries Picture: JAMES MALONEY/ jm300611menu-5
And now, these caramels are handed out to visitors to the White House.
In addition to the new Fleur de Sel Caramel flavor, the Reserve Series flavors include Hawaiian Lehua Honey and Sweet Cream Ice Cream; Pomegranate Chip Ice Cream; Amazon Valley Chocolate Ice Cream; Brazilian Acai Berry Sorbet; and Toasted Coconut Sesame Brittle ice Cream; The single novelty offered in the Reserve Series is a Pomegranate Dark Chocolate Bar.
Fleur de Sel caramels, $20 for 16 pieces; or 800/500-3396.
Williamson, a world leader in caramel colour and ISO 9000 certified, will be demonstrating some of its' new and established products at the 2005 Food Ingredients Europe Expo in November.
The marriage of two processes--traditional confectionery chocolate technology and over 40 years of caramel manufacturing experience-- has developed confectionery chips made with real caramel.
Hershey's Caramels are made with sea salt, molasses and fresh dairy butter and then enrobed with Hershey's milk or dark chocolate.
PASSION fruit creme caramels are wonderful, but are not the easiest dish to make - the high acidity in those wonderful passion fruit can split the caramel if you do not follow the recipe carefully.