R133a formation results from defluorination of R-134a followed by chlorination to form the R133a, indicating the presence of a strong reacting agent, likely the presence of methyl radical or methyl carbocation
as the result of dechlorination of the R-40.
It turns out that particular meso-PCP+ structures involving primary carbocations
are what slow down the chain-branching steps.
With this system, complexation of the Lewis acid coinitiator with the acetate group of IBEA dissociates the carbon-oxygen bond to produce a carbocation
at the oxygen-stabilized secondary carbon atom of IBEA.
The amount of chemical bond formation was the highest for the chloro-hydrocarbon groups that are capable of stabilizing carbocations
formation of carbocations
from the deamination of N-substituted
in 1962, Olah discovered that powerful superacids, trillions of times stronger than pure sulfuric acid, could capture fast-disappearing "carbocations
" and stabilize them for hours.
Chapters discuss specific categories such as organometallics, carboranes, carbocations
, or transformations that proceed through transient hypercarbon species, with information on fundamental chemistry, including reactivity, selectivity, stereochemistry, and mechanistic factors.
Vinyethers can undergo distinct polymerizations, such as cationic, which is unusually electron rich and forms rapidly polymerizing carbocations
in the presence of initiators, such as Lewis and Bronsted acids.
His topics include an overview of acido-basicity, the chemistry of carbocations
, base catalysis with examples of its industrial applications, the conversion of aliphatic feedstocks, catalytic reforming, and shape selectivity in acid catalysis.
Most recently, Schrobilgen and his research group at McMaster have developed an oxidative route to carbocations
using noble-gas species as oxidants.
Deaminatively generated carbocations
were prepared by thermolyses of N-benzyl-N-nitrosotriflamide and N-benzyl-N-nitrosopivalamide in acetonitrile at 25[degrees]C.
Chapters summarize findings in the areas of reactions of aldehydes and ketones and their derivatives; reactions of carboxylic, phosphoric, and sulfonic acids and their derivatives; radical reactions; oxidation and reduction; carbenes and nitrenes; nucleophilic aromatic substitution; electrophilic aromatic substitution; carbocations
; nucleophilic aliphatic substitution; carbanions and electrophilic aliphatic substitutions; elimination reactions; polar addition reactions; cycloaddition reactions; and molecular rearrangements.