Phosphorus based catalysts are used for the production of carbodiimides
Most crosslinking agents already reported to modify the gelatin properties, however, are toxic, including glutaraldehyde [7-9], formaldehyde [10, 11], glyoxal [11, 12], and carbodiimides
For instance, chemical cross-linkers such as epoxy compounds , aldehydes (formaldehyde, glyceraldehyde, and glutaraldehyde) , and carbodiimides
 or ionic cross-linkers such as sulfates, citrates, and phosphates [24, 25] have been used to stabilize CS .
An expanded product range of hydrolysis stabilizers for plastics and polyurethanes includes the addition of Stabaxol P 110, the first product in a line of innovative, low-emmission polymeric carbodiimides
based on alternative raw materials.
Several methods are available for the synthesis of oxazolones including the use of acetic anhydride, sodium acetate, lead acetate, polyphosphoric acid, sulfur trioxide/dimethyl formamide complex, perchloric acid, and carbodiimides
. Recently, synthesis of oxazolones has been reported by using anhydrous zinc chloride or bismuth (III) acetate as catalysts .
The most common crosslinkers are isocyanates, aziridines, and carbodiimides
. Hydroxyl and carboxyl functional resins will react with an isocyanate to form urethanes.
To overcome problems associated with reagent toxicity of the GA, carbodiimides
have been used to cross-link collagen.
(1-10) A number of crosslinkers have been employed for latex coatings, including amino resins, isocyanates, carbodiimides
, aziridines, oxazolines, and aromatic epoxides.
(diimides derived from carbon dioxide) are used extensively in the formation of peptide amide bonds from carboxylic acids and amines.
The Polyurethane/Plastics Division of Rhein Chemic Rheinau GmbH in Mannheim-Rheinau, Germany, has developed the Stabaxol range of carbodiimides
for use as hydrolysis stabilizers in adhesives, where they improve performance and lengthen service life.
6,184,410 B1: Researchers for BASF AG, Ludwigshafen, Germany, have earned a patent for the process of preparing carbodiimides
based on 1,3-bis (1-methyl-l-isocyanatoethyl) benzene.
Furthermore, greater than 90 per cent ee was obtained for products of the Pd-catalyzed cycloaddition of aziridines and symmetrical or unsymmetrical carbodiimides
, using BINAP as the chiral ligand.