carbonate

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carbonate

(kär`bənāt', –nət), chemical compound containing the carbonate radicalradical,
in chemistry, group of atoms that are joined together in some particular spatial structure and that take part in most chemical reactions as a single unit. Important inorganic radicals include ammonium, NH4; carbonate, CO3 ; chlorate, ClO3
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 or ionion,
atom or group of atoms having a net electric charge. Positive and Negative Electric Charges

A neutral atom or group of atoms becomes an ion by gaining or losing one or more electrons or protons.
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, CO3−2. Most familiar carbonates are saltssalt,
chemical compound (other than water) formed by a chemical reaction between an acid and a base (see acids and bases). Characteristics and Classification of Salts

The most familiar salt is sodium chloride, the principal component of common table salt.
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 that are formed by reacting an inorganic base (e.g., a metal hydroxidehydroxide
, chemical compound that contains the hydroxyl (−OH) radical. The term refers especially to inorganic compounds. Organic compounds that have the hydroxyl radical as a functional group are called alcohols; the hydroxyl radical is also present in the carboxyl group
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) with carbonic acidcarbonic acid,
H2CO3, a weak dibasic acid (see acids and bases) formed when carbon dioxide dissolves in water; it exists only in solution. Carbonic acid forms carbonate and bicarbonate (or acid carbonate) salts (see carbonate) by reaction with bases.
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. Normal carbonates are formed when equivalent amounts of acid and base react; bicarbonates, also called acid carbonates or hydrogen carbonates, are formed when the acid is present in excess. Sodium carbonatesodium carbonate,
chemical compound, Na2CO3, soluble in water and very slightly soluble in alcohol. Pure sodium carbonate is a white, odorless powder that absorbs moisture from the air, has an alkaline taste, and forms a strongly alkaline water solution.
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, Na2CO3, sodium bicarbonatesodium bicarbonate
or sodium hydrogen carbonate,
chemical compound, NaHCO3, a white crystalline or granular powder, commonly known as bicarbonate of soda or baking soda. It is soluble in water and very slightly soluble in alcohol.
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, NaHCO3, and potassium carbonatepotassium carbonate,
chemical compound, K2CO3, white, crystalline, deliquescent substance that forms a strongly alkaline water solution. It is available commercially as a white, granular powder commonly called potash, or pearl ash.
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, K2CO3, are widely used. Smelling salts is ammonium carbonate. Calcium carbonate is found in shells of animals and in Iceland sparIceland spar,
colorless variety of crystallized calcite, characterized by its properties of transparency and double refraction. It is used chiefly in the manufacture of Nicol prisms, which are essential parts of polarizing microscopes and other optical instruments.
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, limestonelimestone,
sedimentary rock wholly or in large part composed of calcium carbonate. It is ordinarily white but may be colored by impurities, iron oxide making it brown, yellow, or red and carbon making it blue, black, or gray. The texture varies from coarse to fine.
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, and marblemarble,
metamorphic rock composed wholly or in large part of calcite or dolomite crystals, the crystalline texture being the result of metamorphism of limestone by heat and pressure.
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; it is used in the production of lime (calcium oxidecalcium oxide,
chemical compound, CaO, a colorless, cubic crystalline or white amorphous substance. It is also called lime, quicklime, or caustic lime, but commercial lime often contains impurities, e.g., silica, iron, alumina, and magnesia.
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). Barium carbonate occurs as the mineral witherite. Magnesium carbonate occurs as magnesitemagnesite
, mineral, magnesium carbonate, MgCO3, white, yellow, or gray in color. It originates through the alteration of olivine or of serpentine by waters carrying carbon dioxide; through the replacement of calcium by magnesium in calcareous rocks, sometimes
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 and in dolomitedolomite
. 1 Mineral, calcium magnesium carbonate, CaMg (CO3)2. It is commonly crystalline and is white, gray, brown, or reddish in color with a vitreous to pearly luster. The magnesium is sometimes replaced in part by iron or manganese.
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 (with calcium carbonate). Iron carbonate is a ferrous compound that occurs in nature as sideritesiderite
or chalybite
, a mineral, varying in color from brown, green, or gray to black and occurring in nature in massive and crystalline form. A carbonate of iron, FeCO3, it serves as an iron ore, especially in the British Isles.
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. White leadwhite lead,
heavy, white substance, poisonous, insoluble in water, extensively used as a white pigment and base in paints. It is one of the oldest paint pigments used by humans. Chemically, it is basic lead carbonate, a mixture of lead carbonate and lead hydroxide.
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 used as a pigment in paints is basic lead carbonate. Only ammonium, potassium, and sodium carbonates are readily soluble in water. Alkali metal carbonates are stable when heated, but other carbonates decompose, releasing carbon dioxidecarbon dioxide,
chemical compound, CO2, a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is about one and one-half times as dense as air under ordinary conditions of temperature and pressure. It does not burn, and under normal conditions it is stable, inert and nontoxic.
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. Carbonates also give off carbon dioxide when treated with dilute acids, e.g., hydrochloric acid.

carbonate

[′kär·bə·nət]
(chemistry)
An ester or salt of carbonic acid.
A compound containing the carbonate (CO32-) ion.
Containing carbonates.

carbonate

a salt or ester of carbonic acid. Carbonate salts contain the divalent ion CO32-- FORMULA
References in periodicals archive ?
The visual changes included darker color of the lubricant, steel and copper coupons, as well as presence of white film and deposit; however, there was no carbonate ion and no metal.
In a solution containing Ca, Mg, and carbonate ions for example will preferentially deposits CaC[O.
A lowering pH and reduction in carbonate ions will make it more difficult for organisms to sustain their calcified shells, and in under-saturated conditions, waters become corrosive to these minerals.
To obtain more information on the mode of action of this peptide, we assayed its effect on the carbonic anhydrase activity, an enzyme involved in carbonate ion formation and previously identified in mollusc tissues (Duvail et al.
The rate of film growth depends upon the solubility product, Ksp, for iron and carbonate ions, which were empirically modelled from IUPAC data (1971), and the supersaturation, which is defined below:
Of the bicarbonate present, approximately 20 to 40% undergoes thermal decomposition to carbonate ion.
We have set out instruments to measure seawater pH, carbonate ion concentration, C[O.
As the carbonate ion concentration drops, shells dissolve, releasing the ion into the water.
Coral and a group of organisms known as calcifying algae require a higher concentration of carbonate ion and hence are more vulnerable to the extra carbon dioxide than are clams, say the researchers.
To produce for commercial production, CaCO3 is obtained from ground limestone or by the precipitation of calcium ions with carbonate ions.
More acidic water means that carbonate ions become scarcer.
The carbonate ions lead to react with calcium ions present in the mixture, leading to the precipitation of calcium carbonate depending on the pH levels in the alkali environment.