Carbonic Anhydrase

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carbonic anhydrase

[kär′bän·ik an′hī‚drās]
(biochemistry)
An enzyme which aids carbon dioxide transport and release by catalyzing the synthesis, and the dehydration, of carbonic acid from, and to, carbon dioxide and water.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Carbonic Anhydrase

 

carboanhydrase, carbonate hydrolase, an enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the reversible formation of carbonic acid from carbon dioxide and water: CO2 + H 2O ⇄H2CO3.. Carbonicanhydrase is a metallo-protein containing zinc. Molecular weight, about 30, 000.

Carbonic anhydrase is found in erythrocytes and in cells of the kidneys, the gastric mucosa, and the retina of the eye. Erythrocytic carbonic anhydrase provides for the bonding of CO2with blood in the tissues and for its rapid release in the lungs or branchia. Carbonic anhydrase makes for the formation of acid urine in the kidney, hydrochloric acid in the gastric mucosa, bicarbonates of pancreatic juice in the pancreas, and eggshells (containing CaCO3) in the oviducts of birds. Carbonic anhydrase is specifically and strongly inhibited by sulfonamides, which contain an aromatic group. Diamox (acetazolamide), Pentazane (methazolamide), and other agents used in the treatment of glaucoma and diseases of the retina and nervous system are examples of especially active carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Carbonic anhydrase also occurs in the leaves of certain plants.

E. IU. CHENYKAEVA

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Carbonic anhydrase is a metalloenzyme that requires Zn as a cofactor; it participates in a number of processes such as pH regulation, [C.sub.2] transfer, ion exchange, respiration, photosynthetic [C.sub.2] fixation, and stomatal closure.
Carbonic anhydrase is involved in a range of physiological processes; any change in AC activity directly affects the photosynthetic fixation of [C.sub.2] under [C.sub.2]-limiting conditions.
Using a method developed by the authors, they were able to identify active carbonic anhydrase in the narrower part of the gland and confirm that carbonic anhydrase is indeed responsible for generating the pH gradient.
The asymptote Wmax is reached when the deposition rate is reduced to zero when all the carbonic anhydrase is obliterated by deposited aragonite.
Where and how much skeleton is deposited is controlled by the organic matrix and pattern with which the carbonic anhydrase is laid down.

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