Carbonic Anhydrase

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carbonic anhydrase

[kär′bän·ik an′hī‚drās]
(biochemistry)
An enzyme which aids carbon dioxide transport and release by catalyzing the synthesis, and the dehydration, of carbonic acid from, and to, carbon dioxide and water.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Carbonic Anhydrase

 

carboanhydrase, carbonate hydrolase, an enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the reversible formation of carbonic acid from carbon dioxide and water: CO2 + H 2O ⇄H2CO3.. Carbonicanhydrase is a metallo-protein containing zinc. Molecular weight, about 30, 000.

Carbonic anhydrase is found in erythrocytes and in cells of the kidneys, the gastric mucosa, and the retina of the eye. Erythrocytic carbonic anhydrase provides for the bonding of CO2with blood in the tissues and for its rapid release in the lungs or branchia. Carbonic anhydrase makes for the formation of acid urine in the kidney, hydrochloric acid in the gastric mucosa, bicarbonates of pancreatic juice in the pancreas, and eggshells (containing CaCO3) in the oviducts of birds. Carbonic anhydrase is specifically and strongly inhibited by sulfonamides, which contain an aromatic group. Diamox (acetazolamide), Pentazane (methazolamide), and other agents used in the treatment of glaucoma and diseases of the retina and nervous system are examples of especially active carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Carbonic anhydrase also occurs in the leaves of certain plants.

E. IU. CHENYKAEVA

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
McKenna, "Neutron diffraction of acetazolamide-bound human carbonic anhydrase II reveals atomic details of drug binding," Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol.
Yeger, "Carbonic anhydrase II mediates malignant behavior of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors," American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, vol.
Serum antibody to carbonic anhydrase II in patients with chronic viral hepatitis: a review of its prevalence in liver diseases.
High prevalence of autoantibodies against carbonic anhydrase II and lactoferrin in type 1 diabetes: concept of autoimmune exocrinopathy and endocrinopathy of the pancreas.
Carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) is a modulator of platelet function.
Bone marrow transplantation corrects osteopetrosis in the carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome.
Seven novel mutations in carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome identified by SSCP and direct sequencing analysis.
In addition, BIX01294 reduced RANKL-induced production of osteoclast differentiation markers, such as carbonic anhydrase II, cathepsin K, and NFATc1.
Antibody to carbonic anhydrase II is present in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) irrespective of antimitochondrial antibody status.
Voth, "Preferred orientations of His64 in human carbonic anhydrase II," Biochemistry, vol.
CB extract were found active in inhibiting Urease and Carbonic anhydrase II enzymes while AuCB was inactive.
A mild form of osteopetrosis associated with renal tubular acidosis is caused by carbonic anhydrase II gene (9).

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