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Related to Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: acetazolamide
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



agents that increase the excretion of urine and decrease the amount of fluid in the tissues and serous cavities. Natriuretics increase the excretion of sodium ions. Diuretics are used primarily to treat edema accompanying cardiovascular, liver, and kidney diseases. Depending on their effect, they are classified as renal diuretics, which act directly on the kidneys and have the most pronounced effect, and extrarenal diuretics, which act indirectly through other systems in the body.

Renal diuretics act by blocking the kidney enzymes responsible for the transport of electrolytes, as well as by inhibiting reabsorption in the terminal tubules, which intensifies the excretion of sodium, chlorine, and potassium ions. Among the renal diuretics are the mercury compounds Mercusal and Novurit and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as Diacarb and dichlorphenamide (Daranid)—sulfonamide derivatives that intensify the excretion of bicarbonate, causing a drop in the alkaline reserve in the blood and, in some cases, acidosis. Benzothiadizine and sulfamoylanthranilic and dichlorophenoxyacetic acid derivatives such as dichlothiazide (Hypothiazide), furosemide (Lasix), and ethacrynic acid (Uregit) are extremely potent diuretics that sharply increase the excretion of sodium and have a hypotensive effect. Pyrimidine and pteridine derivatives, such as Allacyl and triamterene (pterofen), inhibit tubular reabsorption of sodium and chlorine ions but do not affect the excretion of potassium. Aldosterone antagonists, including spironolactone (Aldactone and Verospiron), increase the excretion of sodium and decrease the excretion of potassium and urea.

Depending on how they act, extrarenal diuretics are classified as osmotic and other types of agents. Among the osmotic agents are potassium acetate, mannitol, and urea, which are excreted by the kidneys and absorb water. They cause the excretion of sodium and chlorine in proportion to the increase in volume of urine and are used to lower intracranial pressure and reduce cerebral edema. Acid-forming diuretics include ammonium chloride and potassium chloride, which act by the transformation of cations. The ammonium ion is transformed into urea in the liver, the calcium ion settles in the intestine in the form of phosphate or carbonate, and chlorine ions occur in excess in the blood plasma and are excreted by the kidneys with sodium.

Extracts and tinctures are sometimes prepared for use as diuretics from bearberry leaf (tincture or decoction), field horsetail (decoction or fluid extract), and Orthosiphon leaf (tincture).

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Supuran, Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors in the treatment and prophylaxis of obesity, Expert Opin.
Supuran, "Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: E7070, a sulfonamide anticancer agent, potently inhibits cytosolic isozymes I and II, and transmembrane, tumor-associated isozyme IX," Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, vol.
The global glaucoma therapeutics market segmentation is based on drug class (alpha agonist, beta blockers, carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, cholinergic, combined medication, prostaglandin analogs), end users (ambulatory surgical centers, hospitals, ophthalmic clinics).
In our study, topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide was prescribed in (8.33%) patients, which was not the trend seen in other studies from India where dorzolamide was prescribed less frequently as monotherapy instead oral acetazolamide was prescribed; [10] the reasons for less number of prescriptions for dorzolamide monotherapy probably are because of higher frequency of instillation being necessary 3 times a day as compared to prostaglandin analogs and higher cost as compared to P-blockers.
(17,18) Administration of DIDS (4,4-diisothiocyanostilbene 2,2-disulfonic acid, anion exchanger inhibitor), a potent and relatively specific inhibitor of anion exchanger or acetazolamide, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor or induction the Na-free medium decrease pulmonary vascular tone during hypercapnia in the isolated pulmonary artery.
In clinical practice, most patients begin the anti-glaucoma treatments with a single topical drug such as prostaglandin analogs, [sz]-blockers, a-agonists, and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. However, the IOP reduction effect of single anti-glaucoma medication is not effective in the prevention of glaucomatous optic neuropathy.
Scozzafava, "Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: sulfonamides as antitumor agents?" Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry, vol.
Effect of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors on Anopheles albimanus larvae (Diptera: Culicidae)
* Topical aqueous suppressants: beta-blockers, adrenergic agents, alpha-2 agonists, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
19 patients were on local IOP-lowering medications (carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, fi-blockers, brimonidine, prostaglandins, or combinations).
They cover carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and activators, matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors, bacterial zinc protease inhibitors, and other enzymes containing zinc.

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