Carbonic Anhydrase

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carbonic anhydrase

[kär′bän·ik an′hī‚drās]
An enzyme which aids carbon dioxide transport and release by catalyzing the synthesis, and the dehydration, of carbonic acid from, and to, carbon dioxide and water.

Carbonic Anhydrase


carboanhydrase, carbonate hydrolase, an enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the reversible formation of carbonic acid from carbon dioxide and water: CO2 + H 2O ⇄H2CO3.. Carbonicanhydrase is a metallo-protein containing zinc. Molecular weight, about 30, 000.

Carbonic anhydrase is found in erythrocytes and in cells of the kidneys, the gastric mucosa, and the retina of the eye. Erythrocytic carbonic anhydrase provides for the bonding of CO2with blood in the tissues and for its rapid release in the lungs or branchia. Carbonic anhydrase makes for the formation of acid urine in the kidney, hydrochloric acid in the gastric mucosa, bicarbonates of pancreatic juice in the pancreas, and eggshells (containing CaCO3) in the oviducts of birds. Carbonic anhydrase is specifically and strongly inhibited by sulfonamides, which contain an aromatic group. Diamox (acetazolamide), Pentazane (methazolamide), and other agents used in the treatment of glaucoma and diseases of the retina and nervous system are examples of especially active carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Carbonic anhydrase also occurs in the leaves of certain plants.


References in periodicals archive ?
NPPC and carbonic anhydrase 12 (CA12) were validated as Gen-induced genes, and interestingly, Dex antagonized Gen-induction for both genes.
Effects of glucocorticoid treatment of the carbonic anhydrase activity of brain tissue in the early postnatal age in the rat.
Key words: Carbonic anhydrase IX; clear cell cancer; hypoxia inducible factor-l[alpha]; kidney.
Carbonic anhydrase IX is an independent predictor of survival in advanced renal clear cell carcinoma: implications for prognosis and therapy.
By adding normal carbonic anhydrase genes designed to work only in guard cells, they were able to restore the CO2-triggered pore-tightening response in mutant plants.
One such example is carbonic anhydrase IX, which identifies a membranous enzyme/protein whose normal function is to regulate both intracellular and extracellular pH and whose expression is induced by hypoxic conditions.
Human MN/CA9 gene, a novel member of the carbonic anhydrase family: structure and exon to protein domain relationships.
Mechanism and Inhibition of the b-Class and c-Class Carbonic Anhydrases (James G.
Crystallographic Studies on Carbonic Anhydrases from Fungal Pathogens for Structure-Assisted Drug Development (Uta-Maria Ohndorf, Christine Schlicker, and Clemens Steegborn).
Transmembrane carbonic anhydrases such as CA IX, which was identified by RNA differential display as being overexpressed in RCC cell lines lacking wild-type VHL protein, have been recently shown to be both induced by hypoxia and down-regulated by the VHL protein.
Expression of hypoxia-inducible carbonic anhydrases in brain tumors.
Antibodies to carbonic anhydrase in systemic lupus erythematosus and other rheumatic diseases.