Carbonic Anhydrase

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carbonic anhydrase

[kär′bän·ik an′hī‚drās]
An enzyme which aids carbon dioxide transport and release by catalyzing the synthesis, and the dehydration, of carbonic acid from, and to, carbon dioxide and water.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Carbonic Anhydrase


carboanhydrase, carbonate hydrolase, an enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the reversible formation of carbonic acid from carbon dioxide and water: CO2 + H 2O ⇄H2CO3.. Carbonicanhydrase is a metallo-protein containing zinc. Molecular weight, about 30, 000.

Carbonic anhydrase is found in erythrocytes and in cells of the kidneys, the gastric mucosa, and the retina of the eye. Erythrocytic carbonic anhydrase provides for the bonding of CO2with blood in the tissues and for its rapid release in the lungs or branchia. Carbonic anhydrase makes for the formation of acid urine in the kidney, hydrochloric acid in the gastric mucosa, bicarbonates of pancreatic juice in the pancreas, and eggshells (containing CaCO3) in the oviducts of birds. Carbonic anhydrase is specifically and strongly inhibited by sulfonamides, which contain an aromatic group. Diamox (acetazolamide), Pentazane (methazolamide), and other agents used in the treatment of glaucoma and diseases of the retina and nervous system are examples of especially active carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Carbonic anhydrase also occurs in the leaves of certain plants.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Keywords: Carbonic anhydrase I, carbonic anhydrase II, diabetes mellitus, diabetic retinopathy
Supuran, "Dipotassium-trioxohydroxytetrafluorotriborate, [K.sup.2][[B.sup.3][O.sup.3][F.sup.4]OH], is a potent inhibitor of human carbonic anhydrases," Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry, vol.
The metalloenzyme, carbonic anhydrase (CA), catalyzes the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide into bicarbonate, and is responsible for biomineralization processes in animals.
NPPC and carbonic anhydrase 12 (CA12) were validated as Gen-induced genes, and interestingly, Dex antagonized Gen-induction for both genes.
By adding normal carbonic anhydrase genes designed to work only in guard cells, they were able to restore the CO2-triggered pore-tightening response in mutant plants.
One such example is carbonic anhydrase IX, which identifies a membranous enzyme/protein whose normal function is to regulate both intracellular and extracellular pH and whose expression is induced by hypoxic conditions.
Carbonic anhydrase (CA; EC is a zinc enzyme that is widely distributed in the living world and is involved in many biochemical processes that depend on the hydration/ dehydration of carbon dioxide/bicarbonate [reviewed in Refs.
Frost, "Physiological functions of the alpha class of carbonic anhydrases," Subcellular Biochemistry, vol.
Scozzafava, Carbonic anhydrases as targets for medicinal chemistry, Bioorg.
Wang, "Carbonic anhydrases III and IV autoantibodies in rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, diabetes, hypertensive renal disease, and heart failure," Clinical and Developmental Immunology, vol.
Rafajova et al., "Hypoxia activates the capacity of tumor-associated carbonic anhydrase IX to acidify extracellular pH," FEBS Letters, vol.