The first step of fatty acid biosynthesis is the conversion of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA, catalyzed by acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC).
Two important enzymes in the fat synthesis pathway are acetyl-CoA carboxylase and LACS.
AMPK activates energy-generating pathways by increasing fatty acid oxidation via phosphorylation of acetyl-coA carboxylase
2 (ACC2) and glycolysis via activation of phosphofructo-2kinase (PFK) (Figure 1(a)).
Weiss, "Effect of biotin on activity and gene expression of biotin-dependent carboxylases
in the liver of dairy cows," Journal of Dairy Science, vol.
Effects of biotin on pyruvate carboxylase
, acetyl-CoA carboxylase
, propionyl-CoA carboxylase
, and markers for glucose and lipid homeostasis in type 2 diabetic patients and nondiabetic subjects.
has been the subject of extensive experimental research in the last decades [1,2].[C.sub.4] plants (Maize) shows a mechanism to concentrate C[O.sub.2] at the site of PEP carboxylase
 (E.C188.8.131.52) and there by overcome photorespiration.
As described above, biotin is a coenzyme for 4 carboxylases
. In its physiologically active form, biotin is covalently attached to these carboxylases
via an amide linkage to a specific lysine residue (4).
To examine the biosynthetic pathway for Gla, we have studied the Conus carboxylase
which converts glutamic acid to [beta]-carboxyglutamic acid in the presence of vitamin K.
[C.sub.4] mesophyll cells, by contrast, lack rubisco but rely on an important cytosolic enzyme, phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase
, to assimilate [CO.sub.2].
Key words: PCR-SSCP, goat, Acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase
a, milk traits
We have cloned full-length carboxylase
homologs from the beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), the toadfish (Opsanus tau), and cone snail (Conus textile) in order to compare these structures to the known bovine, human, rat, and mouse cDNA sequences.