Carboxylases


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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Carboxylases

 

a group of enzymes of the lyase class, catalyzing decarboxylation (CO2 separation) of keto and aminoacids. Cocarboxylase acts as a coenzyme of carboxylases thatdecarboxylize keto acids, pyridoxal phosphate serves as a coen-zyme of carboxylases that catalyze the decarboxylation of aminoacids.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The first step of fatty acid biosynthesis is the conversion of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA, catalyzed by acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC).
Two important enzymes in the fat synthesis pathway are acetyl-CoA carboxylase and LACS.
AMPK activates energy-generating pathways by increasing fatty acid oxidation via phosphorylation of acetyl-coA carboxylase 2 (ACC2) and glycolysis via activation of phosphofructo-2kinase (PFK) (Figure 1(a)).
Weiss, "Effect of biotin on activity and gene expression of biotin-dependent carboxylases in the liver of dairy cows," Journal of Dairy Science, vol.
Effects of biotin on pyruvate carboxylase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, propionyl-CoA carboxylase, and markers for glucose and lipid homeostasis in type 2 diabetic patients and nondiabetic subjects.
PEP carboxylase has been the subject of extensive experimental research in the last decades [1,2].[C.sub.4] plants (Maize) shows a mechanism to concentrate C[O.sub.2] at the site of PEP carboxylase [3] (E.C4.1.1.31) and there by overcome photorespiration.
As described above, biotin is a coenzyme for 4 carboxylases. In its physiologically active form, biotin is covalently attached to these carboxylases via an amide linkage to a specific lysine residue (4).
To examine the biosynthetic pathway for Gla, we have studied the Conus carboxylase which converts glutamic acid to [beta]-carboxyglutamic acid in the presence of vitamin K.
[C.sub.4] mesophyll cells, by contrast, lack rubisco but rely on an important cytosolic enzyme, phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase, to assimilate [CO.sub.2].
We have cloned full-length carboxylase homologs from the beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), the toadfish (Opsanus tau), and cone snail (Conus textile) in order to compare these structures to the known bovine, human, rat, and mouse cDNA sequences.