Carboxylation


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Related to Carboxylation: hydroxylation

carboxylation

[kär‚bäk·sə′lā·shən]
(organic chemistry)
Addition of a carboxyl group into a molecule.

Carboxylation

 

the direct introduction of the carboxyl group —COOH to organic compounds by the action of CO2. For example, carboxylation of organometallic compounds occurs during the passage of CO2 through a solution of the compound; subsequent hydrolysis yields carboxylic acid:

Salicylic acid and ^-aminosalicylic acid (PASA), used in medicine, are obtained through a singular carboxylation process involving the corresponding phenolates, for example

Carboxylation in an organism is effected by specific enzymes, forexample, pyruvate carboxylase catalyzes the carboxylation ofpyruvic acid. Carboxylation plays an important role in the oxida-tion of intermediate products of the decomposition of carbohy-drates, fats, and proteins in the organism.

References in periodicals archive ?
We demonstrate that after oral ingestion, MK-7 is more effective in both catalyzing osteocalcin carboxylation in bone and counteracting coumarin anticoagulants in the liver.
For the instantaneous carboxylation efficiency (EICI), irrigation water salinity had a negative effect and, according to the regression equation (Figure 3A), there was a reduction in EICI of 18.49% per unit increase in electrical conductivity of water, i.e., reductions of 59.47% in the EICI of plants irrigated with water of highest salinity (3.5 dS [m.sup.-1]), compared to the lowest level (0.7 dS [m.sup.-1]).
The strong and very strong positive correlations between C[O.sub.2] net assimilation rate and transpiration rate in both readings indicate the effectiveness of the stomatal adjustment mechanism on the transpiration and C[O.sub.2] assimilation rates, which are reflected in the water use efficiency and may explain the positive correlations obtained between these variables and the instantaneous efficiency of carboxylation by Rubisco.
In relation to the carboxylation efficiency, A/Ci, there was also a reduction with increased salinity, a variable that expresses the relationship between the consumption and the availability of [CO.sub.2] in the sub stomatal cavity.
Previous studies have suggested that vitamin K promotes bone mineralization by increasing the carboxylation of osteocalcin, a protein synthesized by osteoblasts, and by affecting calcium balance, a key mineral in bone metabolism.
Stoker et al., "Differences between human and rodent pancreatic islets: low pyruvate carboxylase, ATP citrate lyase, and pyruvate carboxylation and high glucose-stimulated acetoacetate in human pancreatic islets," The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.
The plants that were subjected to treatments with 25% I decreased net assimilation rate ([A.sub.net]) and apparent carboxylation efficiency (A/[C.sub.i]) compared those grown with 75% I, which exhibited the highest values of [A.sub.net] (Figure 01a).
The primary THJ-2201 metabolic pathways were oxidative defluorination to 5'-OH-THJ-018 and further carboxylation (THJ-018 pentanoic acid) and glucuronidation (5'-OH-THJ-018 glucuronide).
Pseudoxanthoma elasticum: Reduced gamma-glutamyl carboxylation of matrix gla protein in a mouse model (Abcc6–/–).