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Related to Carboxylation: hydroxylation


(organic chemistry)
Addition of a carboxyl group into a molecule.



the direct introduction of the carboxyl group —COOH to organic compounds by the action of CO2. For example, carboxylation of organometallic compounds occurs during the passage of CO2 through a solution of the compound; subsequent hydrolysis yields carboxylic acid:

Salicylic acid and ^-aminosalicylic acid (PASA), used in medicine, are obtained through a singular carboxylation process involving the corresponding phenolates, for example

Carboxylation in an organism is effected by specific enzymes, forexample, pyruvate carboxylase catalyzes the carboxylation ofpyruvic acid. Carboxylation plays an important role in the oxida-tion of intermediate products of the decomposition of carbohy-drates, fats, and proteins in the organism.

References in periodicals archive ?
Stomatal conductance (gs) (A), transpiration (E) (B), net photosynthesis (A) (C), instantaneous carboxylation efficiency (A/Ci) (D), instantaneous water use efficiency (IWUE) (E) and yield (F) of castor bean in monocropped and intercropped with peanut at different sowing dates
In our study, decreases in the rate of photosynthesis were mostly related to carboxylation efficiency, indicating that non-stomatal factors had the greatest effect on photosynthesis.
Likewise, the differences in these parameters could suggest that the assimilation capacity, and the biochemical ability of carboxylation and electron flow exhibit symptoms of photosynthetic stress like photoinhibition.
Oxidation of alpha-ketoglutarate is required for reductive carboxylation in cancer cells with mitochondrial defects," Cell Reports, vol.
As a result, maximum rate of net photosynthesis (Amax) and carboxylation efficiency (CE) under elevated CO2 in R biotype were significantly lower than in S biotype (Pless than 0.
2] enrichment related to both ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylation limitation and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate regeneration limitation.
ery low dose gamma irradiation stimulates gaseous exchange and carboxylation efficiency, but inhibits vascular sap flow in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.
N-limitation to above ground productivity is primarily photosynthetic in nature; N-addition is associated with increasing concentrations of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (Rubisco), the enzyme responsible for primary carboxylation in [C.
Role of the propeptide and gamma-glutamic acid domain of factor IX for in vitro carboxylation by the vitamin K-dependent carboxylase.
The extent of carboxylation affected to the surface of CNT can be assigned to these type peaks.