Cardiac Massage

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cardiac massage

[′kärd·ē‚ak mə′säzh]
Rhythmic compression of the heart by a physician or other person in the effort to maintain effective circulation following heart failure.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Cardiac Massage


in cases of cardiac arrest, a method of resuscitation involving the rhythmic compression of the heart.

There are two types of cardiac massage—open and closed. Open cardiac massage is performed surgically, through an opening in the chest wall. In closed cardiac massage, which is a form of emergency first aid, both hands are used to apply rhythmic pressure to the victim’s chest. One palm is placed over the other, and the arms are kept straightened at the elbows. The full body weight is used to press down. The victim should be on his back on a hard surface, and 50 to 60 compressions should be applied every minute. The index and middle fingers are used to administer closed cardiac massage on newborns and infants, whereas one hand is used for children up to approximately 12 years of age.

At each compression of the heart, blood enters the vessels of the systemic and pulmonary circulation systems. The heart fills with blood from the major veins when pressure is released. Cardiac massage reinstates circulation and maintains the vital functions of the body. It stimulates the activity of the cardiac muscle and helps restore independent cardiac contractility. Artificial respiration is administered with cardiac massage.


Chervinskii, A. A., Iu. N. Bokarev, and Iu. I. Malyshev. Osnovy prakticheskoi reanimatologii. Moscow, 1968.
Buianov, V. M. Pervaia meditsinskaia pomoshch’, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1974.
Osnovy reanimatologii, 2nd ed. Edited by V. A. Negovskii. Moscow, 1975.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Three modes of cardiac compressions in a single patient: A comparison of usual manual compressions, automated compressions, and open cardiac massage. Resuscitation 2014; 85: 75-6.
It was alarming that only 17.7% of the students mentioned cardiac massage, only three mentioned the required technique or frequency of compressions and only one mentioned using an EAD.
Closed chest cardiac massage in the treatment of venous air embolism.
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The 26-year-old rider fell with 25km remaining and was unconscious with blood coming from his mouth and nose before medics gave him a cardiac massage at the scene.
Medics gave him a cardiac massage at the scene but were unsuccessful in their attempts to revive him.
The turning point came in 1960 when doctors at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine resuscitated 14 out of 20 cardiac arrest patients by applying closed-chest cardiac massage. In 1962, cardiac defibrillation equipment arrived.
This is one reason why it is essential that the patient is nursed in an intensive care unit where his heart is monitored and he can be watched by trained staff all the time; in the case of an arrest, cardiac massage can be started right away.
The patient revived after I gave him cardiac massage." A.
This is depressing," referencing a viral video where a cat gives a cardiac massage to another cat that has been hit by a car.
Accordingly, CPR was optimised by intravenous adrenaline, volume loading and by increasing the depth of external cardiac massage. This led to improved diastolic TCD-flow pattern (Figure 5).
Although the inquest heard she had vomited and paramedics reported she was given the kiss of life and cardiac massage, her doctors did not give her a brain scan while she was in hospital.