Coronary Circulation

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Related to Cardiac vein: coronary veins
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Coronary Circulation


the blood supply to the cardiac muscle, carried by the intercommunicating arteries and veins that run throughout the myocardium.

In man, arterial blood is supplied mainly by the right and left coronary arteries, which begin at the base of the aorta. There are three types of blood supply—right coronary, left coronary, and general—which in some measure determine the nature of the pathology of the coronary circulation in the event of disease of the heart vessels. The coronary veins are both larger and greater in number than the arteries. The veins empty into the right atrium. The principal arterial and venous trunks are connected by a well-developed network of anastomoses, which facilitates collateral (shunt) circulation in cases of impairment of blood supply to the heart.

The great intensity of the blood supply to the myocardium is provided by a dense network of capillaries (approximately twice the number per unit volume than in the skeletal muscles). The level of the coronary circulation in a healthy body corresponds exactly to the force and frequency of the heartbeat. It is regulated both by physical factors (for example, blood pressure in the aorta) and by neural and humoral mechanisms. Coronary circulation is influenced by physical and mental condition and by the degree and character of stress or load. It is sharply impaired by nicotine and certain factors that lead to atherosclerosis, hyper-tension, and cardiac ischemia, such as overstrain of the nervous system, negative emotions, improper nutrition, and the absence of constant physical excercise. Coronary insufficiency and disturbances of coronary circulation are among the most frequent causes of death in economically developed countries, and there-fore their prevention and treatment (mainly of infarction) are the most pressing problems of modern medicine.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
When the CS is seen in longitudinal sections then at its proximal end, termination of Great Cardiac Vein (GCV) was seen, which was marked by the presence of valve of Vieussens.
The Cardiac Veins and Retrograde Coronary Venous Perfusion.
By definition, the CS is the blood conduit in the continuation of the great cardiac vein, which is situated between the valve of the great cardiac vein of Viesseun or the point of entrance of the oblique vein of Marshall and the Thebesian valve of the ostium of the CS.
They take the form of single or double myocardial belts that encircle the terminal portion of the great cardiac vein. In addition, small muscular connections between the left atrial muscle and the anterior wall of the CS were observed at the level of the mitral ring as described by Chauvin (Chauvin et al., 2000).
The results indicate that the histological structure of the CS is not that of a cardiac vein.
This may indicate that cardiac lymphatics may derive from the earliest cardiac veins. On the other hand, Prox-[1.sup.+]/Lyve-[1.sup.-] strands of cells, clusters, and finally tubules were found to invade the great arteries from the mediastinum of mouse fetuses at 12-13 dpc (Figure 2) and Prox-[1.sup.+]/[QH1.sup.+] strands of cells of quail fetuses at HH 26-36 stages, respectively [24,25].
The system is designed to help physicians determine the most appropriate location for left-ventricular lead placement by generating 3-D images of the cardiac veins; enhanced software for the system will be commercially available later this year that also analyzes the motion of select cardiac vessels of the left side of the heart.
SUMMARY: The coronary sinus (SC) is the main end of the cardiac veins, being the principal vein of the heart, draining all its blood, except that driven by the anterior cardiac veins and the minimum cardiac veins.

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