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Cardiff (kärˈdĭf), Welsh Caerdydd, city and county (2020 est. pop. 357,200), S Wales, on the Taff River near its mouth on the Bristol Channel. Cardiff is the capital of Wales and an important port. Until the early 20th cent. it was one of the greatest coal-shipping ports in the world. Modern industries include retailing, services, engineering, oil and gasoline distribution, and food processing. Studios of the British Broadcasting Corp. are located in Cardiff, which is also the center of the Welsh-language broadcasting industry. The construction of docks by the 5th marquess of Bute in 1839 stimulated the city's growth. The port includes the docks at Penarth and Barry. There is also a canal to Merthyr Tydfil (opened 1794), with a branch to Aberdare.
Cardiff Castle, the residence of the marquess of Bute until 1947, was first built in 1090 on the site of a Roman fort. Robert, duke of Normandy, was imprisoned (1126–34) in the castle. Owen Glendower partly destroyed it in 1404. In Cathays Park the group of public buildings includes the National Museum of Wales, the law courts, and the city hall. Cardiff Univ., Cardiff Metropolitan Univ., and a campus of the Univ. of South Wales are there. The former docklands of Cardiff Bay are now the site of the new Senedd (National Assembly) building and a multipurpose cultural center. The city also has a botanic garden. Llandaff, which has a notable medieval cathedral, has been incorporated in Cardiff since 1922. The parish church of St. John dates partly from the 13th and 15th cent., and the Museum of Welsh Life, on the city's outskirts, groups buildings from throughout Wales.
a city in Great Britain; capital of Wales. Situated on Bristol Bay, at the mouth of the Taff River. Population, 278, 200 (1971). It is part of the conurbation of southeast Wales. An important industrial center and transportation hub.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Cardiff’s advantageous position made it a major port in Britain for the export of bunker coal from the coalfields of South Wales, peaking in 1913, when it exported 36 million tons, or two-fifths of the total British export. Today, coal shipments are nonexistent for all practical purposes, and Cardiff now serves as a port for importing iron ore, other raw materials, and food supplies. Its industry includes ferrous metallurgy and various forms of machine building (including auto manufacture and ship repair); food processing and printing are highly developed.
Several colleges of the University of Wales are located in Cardiff. The castle (c. 1090), Llandaff Cathedral (12th-15th centuries), and the Church of St. John (15th century) are of historical and architectural interest. The city has grown intensely since the 19th century; new industrial and port structures and workers’ residential areas with characteristically clustered houses have been built. The Civic Center in Cathays Park (planned 1924–46) creates a large verdant area; the city hall (1904; architect, H. Lanchester) and the National Temple of Peace (1938; architect, P. Thomas) are part of the complex. The National Museum of Wales and the Welsh Folk Museum, with collections of folk art, are also located in Cardiff. Cumbran, a companion city designed by the architect J. West, was built in the 1950’s.