Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Granvelle, Antoine Perrenot de


(also Granvela, Antoine Perrenot de). Born Aug. 20, 1517, in Besançon; died Sept. 21, 1586, in Madrid. Spanish statesman, cardinal (1561).

From 1559 to 1564, Granyelle was the closest adviser of the Spanish regent in the Netherlands, Margaret of Parma. He carried out a policy directed at the enslavement and plundering of the Netherlands. Granvelle’s policy provoked indignation in the country and he was recalled to Spain. He was viceroy of Naples from 1571 to 1575, and after 1575 he was an especially trusted adviser of the Spanish king Philip II.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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He is quick to point out that humanists surely knew the paintings and owned prints, and that patrons such as Cardinal Granvelle, who owned non-comic Bruegel paintings but presumably constituted part of the audience for that group, in fact enjoyed a deep classical training and defended Erasmus against university theologians, and two of Bruegel's other wealthy patrons knew the classics, at least.
The greatest patron among the private collectors who supported his work was Cardinal Granvelle, an envoy of the Spanish court.
The letters include those between Gabriele Giolito and Antoine Perrenot, later Cardinal Granvelle, as well as those from Gabriele Giolito to various other recipients, primarily his relative Lelio Montalerio, who also helped take care of some of Gabriele's business affairs in Mantua.
For Cardinal Granvelle, see Durme, 1957(1) and idem 1957(2); and the entry under Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle in the Dictionnaire d'histoire et geographie ecclesiastique, v.