Manning, Henry Edward

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Manning, Henry Edward,

1808–92, English churchman, cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church.

Early Life and Anglican Churchman

Manning was born of a Low Church family and was educated at Harrow and at Balliol College, Oxford (B.A., 1830), gaining some reputation as a debater. He lacked the financial backing to enter politics like his friend William Ewart GladstoneGladstone, Herbert John Gladstone, 1st Viscount
, 1854–1930, British statesman; son of William E. Gladstone.
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, but worked for a year in a minor post of the colonial office and returned to Oxford as fellow of Merton College. He was ordained (1832) in the Anglican Church and was given a living in Sussex. By 1835 he had become an adherent of the Oxford movementOxford movement,
religious movement begun in 1833 by Anglican clergymen at the Univ. of Oxford to renew the Church of England (see England, Church of) by reviving certain Roman Catholic doctrines and rituals.
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. In 1841 he became archdeacon of Chichester.

By 1845 when William George WardWard, William George,
1812–82, English Roman Catholic apologist, educated at Oxford. He became (1834) a fellow at Balliol College, Oxford, and was ordained in the Church of England. At first a Broad Churchman, he joined the Oxford movement in 1838.
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 was degraded, Manning had become prominent in the Oxford movement, and his letters of succeeding years, as well as his visit to Rome (1847), foretold his following of John Henry NewmanNewman, John Henry,
1801–90, English churchman, cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church, one of the founders of the Oxford movement, b. London. Early Life and Works
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 and Ward into the Roman Catholic Church. When the bishop of Exeter was compelled by the privy council (1850) to institute G. C. Gorham to a benefice despite Gorham's open disbelief in the doctrine of baptismal regeneration, Manning left the Church of England and entered (1851) the Roman communion.

Catholic Churchman

Ordained a Catholic priest, Manning became a celebrated confessor, an ardent advocate of prison reform, and a constant promoter of schemes for alleviating the condition of the poor. His society of Oblates of St. Charles (1857) carried on much of this work. One of the most trusted advisers of Cardinal WisemanWiseman, Nicholas Patrick Stephen,
1802–65, English prelate, cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church, b. Seville, Spain, of Irish-English parentage. In 1836 he founded (with Daniel O'Connell) the Dublin Review.
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, Manning was made (1857) provost of the Westminster chapter, and on Wiseman's death, he was appointed archbishop (1865). He greatly expanded Catholic education in England and furthered the education of the poor. He strongly opposed Catholic participation in Anglican universities, thereby bringing himself into conflict with Newman.

His advocacy of the rights of workers brought much abuse upon him from conservatives, but he fearlessly forwarded the movement within his church that culminated in the encyclical of Leo XIIILeo XIII,
1810–1903, pope (1878–1903), an Italian (b. Carpineto, E of Rome) named Gioacchino Pecci; successor of Pius IX. Ordained in 1837, he earned an excellent reputation as archbishop of Perugia (1846–77), and was created cardinal in 1853.
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 on the rights of labor. In his later years he was constantly called on to speak at labor-union conventions and to serve on strike arbitration boards. He was an advocate of slum clearance and teetotalism. In 1869 and 1870, Manning was a leader in the movement that favored the dogma of papal infallibility, and he inclined to view Newman and others who thought it an untimely move as decidedly lukewarm Catholics. This intensified the dislike between Newman and Manning. In 1875, Manning was created cardinal. Many regard as the greatest single achievement of Manning's career the strong support he gave the strikers in the great London dock strike (1889) and his single-handed settlement of it.

Bibliography

Manning's Rule of Faith (1839) and Unity of the Church (1842) were important in the history of the Oxford movement. Among his Catholic works, The Eternal Priesthood (1883) is best known. See biographies by E. S. Purcell (2 vol., 1895–96, repr. 1973), S. Leslie (rev. ed. 1954), and V. A. McClelland (1962); G. Donald, Men Who Left the Movement (1967); L. Strachey, Eminent Victorians (1918, repr. 1969).

References in classic literature ?
You think it proves the truth of Roman Catholicism that John Henry Newman wrote good English and that Cardinal Manning has a picturesque appearance?
He said the pub was named after Cardinal Manning, a 19th century predecessor as Archbishop of Westminster who famously supported the London dockers' strike of 1889.
Preaching at the London Oratory, Cardinal Manning said: 'The history of our land will hereafter record the name of John Henry Newman among the greatest of our people, as a Confessor for the Faith.
Father Newman moved to found the Oratory in Hagley Road in 1852, and the present St Anne's Church was opened by Cardinal Manning, Archbishop of Westminster in 1884.
If Wilson's story boasts its share of heroes (they include so diverse a group as Prince Albert, Lord Shaftesbury, Benjamin Disraeli, Josephine Butler, Thomas Hardy, Cardinal Manning, and Charles Stewart Parnell), it includes a yet larger number of villains (or at least villainous doctrines).
Cardinal Manning dismissed the enormous efforts of Newman as mere literature; W.
Strachey claimed that the iconic 19th century heroes were self serving monsters: Florence Nightingale, Thomas Arnold, Cardinal Manning and General Gordon.
Weber, Magnificat: The Life and Times of Timothy Cardinal Manning, 1999).
Even here there were problems, since cardinal priests are ordinarily required to reside in Rome; his letter saying that this was impossible for him to do at his advanced age was interpreted by Cardinal Manning as a definite refusal of the honour.
He was descended from an ancient Shropshire Recusant family and became a liberal Catholic in opposition to the Ultramontism of leaders such as Cardinal Manning.
There are chapters on Daniel O'Connell, Frederick Ozanam, Cardinal Manning, Albert de Mun, Don Luigi Sturzo, Michael Collins and Eamon de Valera, Jacques Maritain, Emmanuel Mounier, Dorothy Day, Konrad Adenauer, Oscar Romero, and Lech Walesa, as well as several lesser figures.
For all that, the Christian Socialists, and the Broad Church movement in general, displayed an openness towards the arts, and a warmth towards those who practised them, that would have shocked John Wesley and dismayed Cardinal Manning.