Cardinal Richelieu


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Wikipedia.
Related to Cardinal Richelieu: Louis XIII, Louis XIV, Cardinal Mazarin

Richelieu, Cardinal

 

(Armand-Jean du Plessis, Duc de Richelieu). Born Sept. 5, 1585, in Paris; died there Dec. 4, 1642. French statesman and cardinal (from 1622).

In 1624, Richelieu became head of the royal council and de facto ruler of France. Attempting to strengthen absolutism, he took La Rochelle (1628) and the southern fortresses (1629) from the Huguenots, who had set up a state within the state. He deprived the Huguenots of the political rights granted them under the Edict of Nantes (1598), but he maintained freedom of religion, as well as certain privileges enjoyed by the Huguenot bourgeoisie (the Edict of Mercy, 1629). In 1632, Richelieu suppressed a feudal rebellion in Languedoc and executed the Duke of Montmorency, the governor general. Richelieu ordered the destruction of the nobles’ castles, excluding those located along the country’s borders. Supervision of provincial governors was increased, and the rights of the provincial estates, parliaments, and tax collection authorities were greatly limited. Administrative duties were transferred to the provincial intendants.

Richelieu considered his principal foreign-policy task to be the struggle against the Hapsburgs, against whom he waged a “covert” war by supporting their enemies, the German Protestant princes, Holland, Denmark, and Sweden. In 1635 he took France into the Thirty Years’ War (1618–48). The creation of a navy and reorganization of the army contributed to French victories.

In economics Richelieu pursued a mercantilist policy, expanding the French colonization of Canada and promoting French trading companies in the West Indies, including Santo Domingo, as well as in Senegal and Madagascar. To strengthen absolutism and broaden foreign policy, Richelieu increased the oppressive tax burden and harshly suppressed popular movements provoked by his tax policy, including many urban uprisings in the 1620’s, 1630’s, and 1640’s, as well as uprisings by the Croquants (1624, 1636–37) and the Va-nu-pieds (“the barefoot ones,” 1639). In his Political Testament, Richelieu stated the basic principles of the policy of French absolutism.

In literature and art, Richelieu promoted the development of French classicism. He founded the Académie Française.

WORKS

Maximes d’état …. Paris, 1880.
Mémoires, vols. 1–10. Paris, 1908–31.
Testament politique [7th ed.]. Paris, 1947.

REFERENCES

Liublinskaia, A. D. Frantsiia v nach. XVII v. Leningrad, 1959.
Liublinskaia, A. D. Frantsuzskii absoliutizm v pervoi treti XVII v. Moscow-Leningrad, 1965.
Hanotaux, G. Histoire du cardinal de Richelieu, vols. 1–6. Paris [1932–47].
Hauser, H. La Pensée et l’action économique du cardinal de Richelieu. Paris, 1944.
Saint-Aulaire, A. F. de. Richelieu [2nd ed.] Paris, 1960.
Méthivier, H. Le Siècle de Louis XIII. Paris, 1964.
Burckhardt, C. J. Richelieu. Bern [1971].

A. I. KOROBOCHKO

References in periodicals archive ?
Thwarted more times at the highest level than Cardinal Richelieu, she nevertheless has Group 1 ability on the basis of her Racing Post Rating of 123, to which could be added a '+' with little fear of contradiction.
The story of Guy Fawkes's plot to blow up Parliament in London in 1605 is accepted without demur (463-64); the papal schism initiated by Hippolytus is extended to 1439 (117, presumably the year 239 or thereabouts is intended); Vatican I is dated to 1879 instead of 1870 (651, though the correct date is given on 659); Cardinal Richelieu is wrongly described as a Capuchin friar (474); some 150 bishops and monks, rather than "fifty bishops," attended the Cyrilline council at Ephesus in 431 (126); crusades continued to be called long after 1459 (264)--witness the battle of Lepanto in 1571.
Paroled, he took his case to the French court, beseeching the King and Cardinal Richelieu not to forsake his colony.
It is a city filled with political intrigues, as the king, Louis XIII, is merely a puppet and the real power lays with Cardinal Richelieu (splendidly portrayed by Charleton Heston).
Legislative sovereignty and executive prerogative, as the principal vehicles for imposing order, he traces to Jean Bodin and Cardinal Richelieu.
D'Artagnan and the three musketeers, Athos, Porthos, and Aramis, have death-defying experiences as they defend the honor of Anne of Austria against the evil doings of Cardinal Richelieu.
This particular colonization project was a creation of Cardinal Richelieu, chief adviser of Louis XIII, and it was designed primarily to promote France's political and diplomatic policies.
Corneille--before his play Le Cid made his name and aroused the hostility of Cardinal Richelieu --wrote a bizarre comedy, or rather a comedy with a bizarre anti-hero, entitled La Place Royale.
The novel recreates the failed conspiracy against Cardinal Richelieu led by the Marquis de Cinq-Mars.
His works of nonfiction include his autobiography, A Writer's Capital (1974, 1979), biographies of Edith Wharton (1971) and Cardinal Richelieu (1972), and an illustrated historical study of Queen Victoria and her circle, Persons of Consequence (1979).
However, instead of arriving back in Paris as heroes, they find themselves out on their ear, as the Musketeers company is disbanded by Cardinal Richelieu, who is furious at their failure; the trio have been deceived by the double-dealing Milady de Winter, who has passed the stolen plans on to England's Duke of Buckingham.
Join D'Artagnan, Athos, Porthos and Aramis in a thrilling adventure as they go head-to-head with the scheming Cardinal Richelieu and Milady de Winter.