ACE inhibitor

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ACE inhibitor

(ā'sē'ē`, ās) or

angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor

(ăn'jēōtĕn`sĭn), drug used to reduce elevated blood pressure (see hypertensionhypertension
or high blood pressure,
elevated blood pressure resulting from an increase in the amount of blood pumped by the heart or from increased resistance to the flow of blood through the small arterial blood vessels (arterioles).
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), to treat congestive heart failurecongestive heart failure,
inability of the heart to expel sufficient blood to keep pace with the metabolic demands of the body. In the healthy individual the heart can tolerate large increases of workload for a considerable length of time.
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, and to alleviate strain on hearts damaged as a result of a heart attack (see infarctioninfarction,
blockage of blood circulation to a localized area or organ of the body resulting in tissue death. Infarctions commonly occur in the spleen, kidney, lungs, brain, and heart.
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). ACE inhibitors block production of an enzyme that helps convert the protein angiotensin 1 into angiotensin 2, a protein that makes blood vessels constrict and promotes retention of fluid, raising blood pressure. Thus ACE inhibitors act to widen the blood vessels and make it easier for the heart to pump blood through the body. captopril (Capoten), ramipril (Altace), and enalapril (Vasotec) are commonly used ACE inhibitors. Angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs), such as losartan (Cozaar) and valsartan (Diovan), reduce hypertension by displacing angiotensin 2 from receptors on the surface of cells. ARBs are used as alternatives to the less expensive ACE inhibitors because they have fewer side effects.
References in periodicals archive ?
Cardioprotective effect of intermittent fasting is associated with an elevation of adiponectin levels in rats.
H[sub]2S can regulate autophagy in many diseases and induce or inhibit autophagy flux in different cells or diseases.[40],[41],[42] For example, H[sub]2S lowers proliferation and induces protective autophagy in colon epithelial cells.[40] However, exogenous H[sub]2S attenuates cerebral I/R injury by inhibiting autophagy in mice.[41] In the cardiovascular system, H[sub]2S also exerts a cardioprotective effect by modulating autophagy.
Kwak, "Diabetes mellitus mitigates cardioprotective effects of remifentanil preconditioning in ischemia-reperfused rat heart in association with anti-apoptotic pathways of survival," European Journal of Pharmacology, vol.
Cardioprotective effect of salvianolic acid A on isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats.
Moreover, we concluded that elevated myocardial PI3K/Akt signaling and the subsequent increased phosphorylation of GSK3-[beta] may play important roles in the cardioprotective effects of Kae.
These cardioprotective effects are dependent on the activation of Sirt1 [52,56,59,60,62,76] and Sirt3 [38, 53], as both gene silencing and specific sirtuin antagonists block the beneficial response.
Yellon, "Cardioprotective effects of transforming growth factor-[beta]1 during early reoxygenation or reperfusion are mediated by p42/p44 MAPK," Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, vol.
By utilising a nonspecific cannabinoid receptor agonist in the present study it will provide an indication of whether cannabinoid receptors are viable targets for diabetes management and establish directions for future studies that can determine if any cardioprotective effects are linked to specific cannabinoid receptor subtypes.
The limitations of our study were, (i) we did not differentiate the effects of RIPC on high and low risk patients, (ii) we could not evaluate the clinical effect of RIPC on cardiac function and (iii) isoflurane was used as the sole anesthetic in our study that has cardioprotective effects and can affect the result of the study.
[9] Parsons M, Young L, Lee JE, Jacobson KA, Liang BT Distinct cardioprotective effects of adenosine mediated by differential coupling of receptor subtypes to phospholipases C and D.
Studies in animal models have confirmed that the cardioprotective effects of RIPre are due to STAT-3 activation (18,19).