Cardiopulmonary Insufficiency

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Cardiopulmonary Insufficiency


a clinical syndrome characterized by heart failure and accompanying pulmonic regurgitation. Pulmonic regurgitation usually occurs with heart disease and myocarditis. An interruption of blood circulation in the pulmonary vessels resulting from congestion, an increase in blood pressure, or the inclusion of anastomoses leads to pulmonic regurgitation, which in turn leads to a decrease in oxygen saturation.

Chronic pulmonocardiac insufficiency occurs most frequently. The condition is characterized by pulmonic regurgitation and accompanying heart failure and is observed in those with cor pulmonale who suffer from chronic lung disease. Right ventricular heart failure is induced by pulmonary hypertension, during which pressure in the pulmonary artery exceeds 30 mm Hg systolic and 15 mm Hg diastolic. It is also induced by anoxia, acidosis, a reduction in the vascular network of the lungs, bronchial infection, and polycythemia. The primary symptom is exertional dyspnea, which later becomes constant. A decrease in the oxygen saturation of arterial blood to 90 percent or less promotes the onset of cyanosis. The symptoms of right ventricular heart failure also develop. Frequent increases in the erythrocyte and hemoglobin levels of the blood represent the compensatory reaction of the body to reductions in the oxygen concentration of arterial blood.

Cardiopulmonary insufficiency is diagnosed through roentgenologic examination, electrokymography, electrocardiography, and catheterization of the pulmonary artery and the right chambers of the heart. The treatment of pulmonocardiac and cardiopulmonary insufficiencies includes the therapy prescribed for the lung or heart disease that induced the development of the syndrome; the administration of cardiac glycosides, Euphyllin, diuretics, and restoratives; and, in some cases, repeated phlebotomy.


Mukharliamov, N. M. Legochnoe serdtse. Moscow, 1973.
Sivkov, I. I., and V. G. Kukes. Khronicheskaia nedostatochnost’ krovoobrashcheniia. Moscow, 1973.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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