air cargo

(redirected from Cargo airline)
Also found in: Dictionary, Financial, Wikipedia.

aviation

aviation, operation of heavier-than-air aircraft and related activities. Aviation can be conveniently divided into military aviation, air transport, and general aviation. Military aviation includes all aviation activity by the armed services, such as combat, reconnaissance, and military air transport. Air transport consists mainly of the operation of commercial airlines, which handle both freight and passengers. General aviation consists of agricultural, business, charter, instructional, and pleasure flying; it includes such activities as the operation of air taxis, as well as aerial surveying and mapping.

See also air, law of the; air navigation; airplane; airship.

Early Interest in Human Flight

Interest in aviation can be traced back as far as Leonardo da Vinci; a human-powered aircraft based in part on his designs, Daedalus 88, flew 72 mi (115 km) in 1988. However, real progress toward achieving flight in heavier-than-air machines only began in the middle of the 19th cent. In 1842 the Englishman W. S. Henson patented a design for a machine that closely foreshadowed the modern monoplane; another Englishman, John Stringfellow, developed a model plane said to be the first power-driven machine to fly; and a third Englishman, F. H. Wenham, devised the first wind-tunnel experiments. In France, Alphonse Penaud made successful flying models of airplanes, while Clément Ader actually achieved flight (over a distance of about 150 ft/45 m in 1890 and about 300 yd/280 m in 1897) in a power-driven monoplane fashioned after a bat. In 1894 a plane built in England by Sir Hiram S. Maxim, operated by steam engines and carrying a crew of three, rose into the air from the track on which it was being tested. In the United States, S. P. Langley, Octave Chanute, and Otto Lilienthal made notable contributions to the early development of the airplane.

The Birth and Development of the Airplane

Finally, on Dec. 17, 1903, Orville and Wilbur Wright flew the first piloted airplane off the beach near Kitty Hawk, N. C. Henri Blériot and Glenn H. Curtiss made significant improvements in airplane design and, as more powerful engines became available, flew successively longer distances. In 1909 Blériot flew across the English Channel; ten years later a Curtiss-designed flying boat crossed the Atlantic Ocean. At first aviation development was motivated by the large prizes put up by publicity-seeking newspapers; but the outbreak of World War I in 1914 provided far greater motivation for aviation research and development (see air forces. The cessation of hostilities made available a large number of aircraft that could be bought cheaply, and the result was a great deal of aviation activity; barnstorming and stunt-flying kept aviation before the eyes of the public for a time, but the real stimulus was the initiation of airmail service in the mid-1920s. The intrepid airmail pilots caught the fancy of the public, and out of this group came the famous solo fliers Lindbergh, St-Exupéry, and others.

During the 1930s aviation continued to expand. Technological improvements in wind-tunnel testing, engine and airframe design, and maintenance equipment combined to provide faster, larger, and more durable airplanes. The transportation of passengers became profitable, and routes were extended to include several foreign countries. TransPacific airmail service, begun by Pan American Airways (later Pan American World Airways) in 1934, was followed by the first transoceanic aviation service for passengers, on the China Clipper, from San Francisco to Manila (to Hong Kong in 1937). In 1939 the first transatlantic service carrying both mail and passengers was inaugurated.

The Era of Mass Commercial Aviation

The outbreak of World War II interrupted commercial air service, but by 1947 all the basic technology essential to contemporary aviation had been developed: jet propulsion, streamlining, radar, and metallurgy. Perhaps the greatest example of this transition from military technology to commercial applications is the Boeing Company, a minor military contractor which became the largest aircraft manufacturer in the world. Commercial jet transportation began in 1952, when the British Overseas Airways Comet first flew from London to Johannesburg. Though this service was short-lived, by 1960 several commercial jet aircraft were in service; today virtually all commercial air routes are flown by jet or turboprop aircraft. The latest significant development in aviation has been the introduction of fly-by-wire control systems, which rely on computers and electronics rather than cables to operate aircraft control surfaces.

The result has been the explosive growth of commercial aviation, from jumbo and superjumbo jetliners to overnight package services, while general aviation has lagged behind. This growth has not been without some major problems. Jet aircraft use more fuel and require longer runways and more durable construction materials, and their sheer numbers create special problems for air-traffic control. In addition, the takeoff and landing of jet aircraft over populated areas create locally dangerous levels of noise pollution.

Bibliography

See A. de Saint-Exupéry, Wind, Sand, and Stars (tr. 1939); B. Markham, West with the Night (1942, repr. 1987); W. Green and G. Pollinger, The Aircraft of the World (1979); L. K. Loftin, The Evolution of Modern Aircraft (1985); D. Todd and J. Simpson, The World Aircraft Industry (1986).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2022, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.

air cargo

All stores, equipment, or vehicles that do not form part of the aircraft and are either a part of or its entire payload.
An Illustrated Dictionary of Aviation Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
References in periodicals archive ?
Sultan said: "Both the awards are a testimony of the unflagging efforts by the team to make Emirates SkyCargo a successful cargo airline in the India market.
Commenting on the achievements, Nabil Sultan said: "Both the awards are a testimony of the unflagging efforts by the team to make Emirates SkyCargo a successful cargo airline in the India market.
BEIRUT: Lebanon's Pilots Association lashed out at Trans Mediterranean Airways, a private cargo airline, accusing the company of seeking to replace Lebanese pilots with foreign aviators.
Emirates SkyCargo received the accolade at the 30th Cargo Airline of the Year awards, which took place at the Lancaster London Hotel.
The carrier, which was also named Best African Cargo Airline, received the accolades at the prestigious Cargo Airline of the Year 2012 awards held at London's Lancaster Hotel.
US cargo airline Amerijet International announced on Thursday that it is celebrating the 20th anniversary of its scheduled all-cargo service to Trinidad & Tobago.
March 1, 2011 (ADDIS ABABA) - The Ethiopian airlines has won The African Cargo Airline of the Year award, the flag carrier said in a statement.
They are Meridian Airways, a cargo airline operating from Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands and the UK, and Airlift International, also a cargo airline.
In a glittering event, organised by ITP Business magazines, Maximus was proclaimed Cargo Operator of the Year (Cargo Airline) and President and CEO Fathi H.
Emirates' cargo division won the premier prize at the prestigious Cargo Airline of the Year Awards, a leading event on the cargo industry calendar, hosted by Air Cargo News (ACN) in London.
The OSAs are even more liberal than conventional OSAs, which usually cover just flights between two countries, as they allow unlimited 'hubbing' rights for cargo airlines. As an illustration, a Singapore cargo airline will be allowed to base its aircraft in any point in Scandinavia and use this as a hub to operate to any other country, with no restrictions on destination, frequency of service or capacity.
Tokyo, Japan, Oct 12, 2006 - (JCN Newswire) - Japan Airlines and Galaxy Airlines, a new Japanese domestic cargo airline, today filed a plan to operate a code share agreement, subject to the approval of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transportation.