Caria

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Caria

(kâ`rēə), ancient region of SW Asia Minor, S of the Maeander River, which separated it from Lydia. The territory is in present SW Asian Turkey. The Carians were probably a native people, but their region was settled by both Dorian and Ionian colonists. Caria was a center of the Ionian revolt (c.499 B.C.) that was a prelude to the Persian Wars. Some of the communities joined (c.468 B.C.) the Delian League. In the 4th cent. B.C. the region was united under a satrapy of princes, of whom the most celebrated was MausolusMausolus
, d. 353 B.C., Persian satrap, ruler over Caria (c.376–353 B.C.). He was always more or less independent. One of the satraps who revolted against Artaxerxes II, he later allied himself with the Persian kings.
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. Alexander the Great conquered Caria, and it changed hands often in the wars after his death. In 125 B.C. it was made a Roman province (part of the province of Asia). Cnidus, Halicarnassus, and Miletus were famous Carian cities.

Caria

 

an ancient region in southwestern Asia Minor (in modern Turkey). It was named for the Carian tribe, which settled in the region at the end of the second millennium b.c. The studies of the Soviet scholar V. V. Shevoroshkin have established that the language of the Carians belongs to the Hittite-Luwian (Luvian) group of Indo-European languages. At the end of the second millennium b.c., the coast of Caria and the offshore islands were colonized by the Greeks, who founded the cities of Halicarnassus, Cnidus, Miletus, and Magnesia. In the sixth to the fourth century b.c., Caria was subordinate to the Achae-menids but retained its local rulers and satraps. At the end of the fourth century b.c., it was conquered by Alexander the Great. Later, the region was a dependency of the Seleucids. In 129 b.c., Caria was incorporated into the Roman province of Asia.

REFERENCES

Shevoroshkin, V. V. Issledovaniia po deshifrovke kariiskikh nadpisei. Moscow, 1965.
Robert, L., and J. Robert. La Carie: Histoire et géographie histor-ique…. Paris, 1955.

T. M. SHEPUNOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
Its people have merged with Carians, Lelegians, Phrygians, Phonecians, Lydians, Helens, Seljuk Turks and the present Turks.
This is based on the prominence of Carians in Sardian politics and is further supported by Sardian archaeological, Carian inscriptional and Greek literary evidence.
51) In Caria, by the beginning of the 5th century BCE, many Carians were already bilingual and knew the Greek language.
By the time Christ was born, the country had been ruled by Hittites, Urartians, Greeks, Carians, Lycians, Phrygians, Lydians, Persians, Greeks again, and finally Romans, founders of the Byzantine Empire.
Adusius, one of Cyrus's lieutenants, is approached by two rival factions of Carians and makes secret arrangements with each party to conspire against the other.
Thereafter the shrine was controlled first by Carians and then by the Milesians, who appointed its priests.
Most of these were Greeks, more specifically Ionians from the eastern coast of the Aegean, and others were Carians, an Anatolian people who have been well described by the historian Alan Lloyd as `the Gurkhas of antiquity'.
A familiar example is the catalogue of Trojan allies in the Iliad (in which, however, only one group, the Carians, is distinguished by language, as barbarophonos);(2) collections have been made of comparable Egyptian and Akkadian texts,(3) in which language, side by side with physical appearance and behaviour, appears as a feature of national differentiation much more prominently than in Homer.
Hecate Goddess accepted at an early date into Greek religion but probably derived from the Carians in southwestern Asia Minor.
When corpses were removed from Delos, it was seen that many had been buried in the Carian manner, and this shows that Delos and the other islands of the Aegean were once occupied by the Carians.
They included the Late Hittites in southeastern Anatolia and northern Syria, the Urartians in the region of Lake Van and parts of Iran, the Phrygians in central and southeastern Anatolia, the Lydians, Carians and Lycians in the west and southwest, and, on the western coastal fringe, the Ionians.
Over the course of the second and first millennia, the kings of Assyria and Babylonia on occasion employed foreign mercenaries in their armies, as did the rulers of Twenty-Sixth Dynasty Egypt, particularly Greeks and Carians in the case of the latter.