He will sit for hours together poring over the work of some African explorer, and upon two occasions I have found him setting up in bed at night reading Carl Hagenbeck
's book on men and beasts."
Still, those who appreciate Erish's study would do well afterward to take up Eric Ames's Carl Hagenbeck
's Empire of Entertainments (Seattle: University of Washington, 2008).
Barnum and Germany's Carl Hagenbeck
played a key role in shaping the display of humans and perceptions of the human zoo-going public.
was to 19th Century European popular entertainment what Walt Disney and P.T.
His display ranging from a cloud of butterflies made from magazine pages to polar bears in a jam jar borrows its title Freianlage from the term invented by zoologist Carl Hagenbeck
to describe a new type of zoo in which animals could roam at will in a simulated natural environment.
was a German animal dealer and circus trainer.
In 1880, Adrian Jacobsen, working on behalf of Carl Hagenbeck
, who ran Hagenbeck's Zoo in Hamburg, Germany, recruited two Labrador Inuit families to accompany him to Europe and participate in shows featuring "exotic" people.
This latter mode of exhibition, now characteristic of modern zoos throughout the world, was first developed by the German animal entrepreneur Carl Hagenbeck
. Among the intriguing parts of Rothfels's study are accounts of how much a zoo in the United States would pay for a pair of white tigers in the 1880s, for example, or what the total costs for the capture, purchase, transportation, care, feeding, and delivery of a baboon or African elephant were in the 1890s, and what provisions or compensation were agreed to should the animal die soon after delivery.
Barnum, Irvin Feld, Carl Hagenbeck
, John Bill Ricketts and, of course, John Ringling) inscribed near the roofline.
One of the most enterprising zoo proprietors of that century was Carl Hagenbeck
, who routinely sought out the most exotic human specimens for his Thierpark in Hamburg, which also housed an impressive collection of captive animals from around the world.
Savages and Beasts: The Birth of the Modern Zoo by Nigel Rothfels (Johns Hopkins, 26 [pounds sterling]) shows how current zoos evolved from Carl Hagenbeck
's early 20th-century animal parks.