Carl Rogers

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Rogers, Carl


Born Jan. 8, 1902, in Oak Park, III. American psychologist; one of the leaders of “humanistic psychology” and the founder of nondirective or “client-centered” psychotherapy, in which the physician enters into a close personal relationship with the patient and regards him not as a patient but as a client who assumes responsibility for solving his own problems by stimulating the creativity of his ego.

From 1940 to 1963, Rogers was a professor at Ohio State University and at the Universities of Chicago and Wisconsin. He became director of the Center for Studies of the Person in La Jolla, Calif., in 1964. In his theory of personality Rogers distinguishes two systems for regulating behavior: the organism, which strives to protect and strengthen itself, and the self, a special area in the individual’s experience, consisting of a system of perceptions and evaluations by the individual of his traits and of his attitudes toward the world. If the structure of the self is rigid, experiences that are inconsistent with it are perceived as a threat to personality and are consciously distorted or completely denied. The purpose of nondirective psychotherapy is to reorganize the structure of the self so that it becomes flexible and open to all experience.

Humanistic psychology, represented by Rogers and shaped by the irrationalist philosophy of existentialism, became very popular in the USA during the 1950’s and 1960’s. It aspires to the role of a “third force” in the study of human behavior, the other forces being Freudianism and behaviorism.


The Clinical Treatment of the Problem Child. Boston, 1939.
Counseling and Psychotherapy. Boston, 1942.
Client-centered Therapy. Boston, 1951.
Psychotherapy and Personality Change. Chicago, 1954.
“A Theory of Therapy, Personality and Interpersonal Relationships.” In Psychology, vol. 3. Edited by S. Koch. New York, 1959.
Freedom of Personality, 2nd ed. New York, 1972.


Bozhovich, L. I. Lichnost’ i ee formirovanie ν detskom vozraste. Moscow, 1968.
Iaroshevskii, M. G. Psikhologiia ν 20 stoletii, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1974. Hall, C. S., and G. Lindsey. Theories of Personality, 2nd ed. New York, 1970.
Maddi, S. R. Personality Theories, rev. ed. New York, 1972.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Did Carl Rogers 'positive view of human nature bias his psychotherapy?
This book merges the philosophies of Milton Erickson's "utilization" approach with Carl Rogers' "person-centered" approach to form Hugh Gunnison's "hypnocounseling" approach.
His supposed rival was Carl Rogers, then at the University of Wisconsin, whose viewpoint was labeled nondirective counseling.
This model, based on the work of Carl Rogers, attempts to address several issues raised in the literature regarding: (1) the changing role of instructors and students; (2) the broadening of the notion of learning outcomes; (3) the isolation and dissatisfaction of students in dispersed locations; and (4) problems with authenticity and individualization of experience.
To do this, the "Carl Rogers Rule 5f Communication" is extremely useful.
The Shrewsbury side netted through Joe Parry before having Carl Rogers sent off eight minutes from time.
This is a short introduction to the life, but mainly the ideas, work and legacy of American psychotherapist, Carl Rogers. Thorne (counseling, U.
Francis Carl Rogers, of Newcastle, is facing a total of 33 charges which include indecently assaulting a boy under the age of 16, and grooming.
When play was brought to a close, the visitors had reached 122-0 against Northumberland's four-pronged seam attack with Spelman and Carl Rogers both completing half-centuries.
Information on apprenticeship opportunities in the sport and active leisure sector is available from Carl Rogers, West Midlands regional development manager at SkillsActive, on or 07841 981147.
She explores the philosophy, theory and practice of the person-centered approach as formulated by Carl Rogers (1902-1987), in the context of both contemporary psychiatry and mental health services provided by the UK's National Health Service (NHS).
We strapped up his shoulder and sent him out to partner Carl Rogers, who has never played central defence in his life before.