Carl Rogers

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Rogers, Carl


Born Jan. 8, 1902, in Oak Park, III. American psychologist; one of the leaders of “humanistic psychology” and the founder of nondirective or “client-centered” psychotherapy, in which the physician enters into a close personal relationship with the patient and regards him not as a patient but as a client who assumes responsibility for solving his own problems by stimulating the creativity of his ego.

From 1940 to 1963, Rogers was a professor at Ohio State University and at the Universities of Chicago and Wisconsin. He became director of the Center for Studies of the Person in La Jolla, Calif., in 1964. In his theory of personality Rogers distinguishes two systems for regulating behavior: the organism, which strives to protect and strengthen itself, and the self, a special area in the individual’s experience, consisting of a system of perceptions and evaluations by the individual of his traits and of his attitudes toward the world. If the structure of the self is rigid, experiences that are inconsistent with it are perceived as a threat to personality and are consciously distorted or completely denied. The purpose of nondirective psychotherapy is to reorganize the structure of the self so that it becomes flexible and open to all experience.

Humanistic psychology, represented by Rogers and shaped by the irrationalist philosophy of existentialism, became very popular in the USA during the 1950’s and 1960’s. It aspires to the role of a “third force” in the study of human behavior, the other forces being Freudianism and behaviorism.


The Clinical Treatment of the Problem Child. Boston, 1939.
Counseling and Psychotherapy. Boston, 1942.
Client-centered Therapy. Boston, 1951.
Psychotherapy and Personality Change. Chicago, 1954.
“A Theory of Therapy, Personality and Interpersonal Relationships.” In Psychology, vol. 3. Edited by S. Koch. New York, 1959.
Freedom of Personality, 2nd ed. New York, 1972.


Bozhovich, L. I. Lichnost’ i ee formirovanie ν detskom vozraste. Moscow, 1968.
Iaroshevskii, M. G. Psikhologiia ν 20 stoletii, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1974. Hall, C. S., and G. Lindsey. Theories of Personality, 2nd ed. New York, 1970.
Maddi, S. R. Personality Theories, rev. ed. New York, 1972.


References in periodicals archive ?
Cezar Gois consegue fazer uma recriacao, juntamente com Carl Rogers, Paulo Freire, Rolando Toro e outros, sobre a importancia dos grupos e da comunidade, refletindo uma psicologia clinica a partir de categorias teoricas consistentes como: identidade, vivencia biocentrica, corporeidade vivida e arte-identidade.
In his discussion on empathy as a mode of experiencing, the author relates to the work of Carl Rogers and how person-centered theory describes empathy as "a way of being" with a client.
The counseling profession is established upon the foundational concepts of Viktor Frankl, Abraham Maslow, and Carl Rogers and their embedded issues of freedom, personal power, choice, and meaning.
The SDI, which is used successfully worldwide and cross-culturally, was devised over 40 years ago by Elias Porter, a student of the humanistic psychologist Carl Rogers.
A second effective strategy for developing students' skills in employing sufficient evidence is teaching the Rogerian approach to argument, an approach based on a style of therapy developed by psychologist Carl Rogers, an approach that emphasizes active listening.
Calvin Davies and Carl Rogers were on target for Caernarfon.
In 1967 Carl Rogers and 58 facilitators conducted a program to get all the sisters involved in nondirective self-exploration.
Describe como, aunado a la herencia de su padre Carl Rogers, creador del Enfoque Centrado en la Persona, ha entrelazado su experiencia como terapeuta y mujer, para darle mas espacio a lo intuitivo, creativo, emocional y a la fascinante exploracion de la experiencia humana.
Schools were deeply into the false psychology of Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers, who repented, when it was too late, of what they had done.
For many of my peers, Carl Rogers awakened a passion for working with students.
James Carl Rogers, 17, of Swansea - a private with the Royal Regiment of Wales - died in December on a peacekeeping mission in Kosovo.