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Carlisle,city (1991 pop. 72,006) and district, Cumbria, NW England, near the junction of the Caldew, Eden, and Petteril rivers. The city of Carlisle is an important rail center. Manufactures include textiles, biscuits, and metal products, in addition to a substantial engineering industry. Carlisle also has an important livestock auction. The city's location was formerly strategic; the Roman camp Luguvallium stood there, near Hadrian's WallHadrian's Wall,
ancient Roman wall, 73.5 mi (118.3 km) long, across the narrow part of the island of Great Britain from Wallsend on the Tyne River to Bowness at the head of Solway Firth. It was mainly built from c.A.D.
..... Click the link for more information. . The site figured prominently in the border warfare between the English and the Scots during the Middle Ages. Mary Queen of Scots was imprisoned there in 1568. During the English civil warEnglish civil war,
1642–48, the conflict between King Charles I of England and a large body of his subjects, generally called the "parliamentarians," that culminated in the defeat and execution of the king and the establishment of a republican commonwealth.
..... Click the link for more information. , parliamentarians captured Carlisle. A technical college is there.
Carlisle(kärlīl`, kär`līl), borough (1990 pop. 18,419), seat of Cumberland co., S Pa.; inc. 1782. Its manufactures include electronics and paper, rubber, wood, food, and leather products. In the last conflict (1754–63) of the French and Indian WarsFrench and Indian Wars,
1689–1763, the name given by American historians to the North American colonial wars between Great Britain and France in the late 17th and the 18th cent.
..... Click the link for more information. the Forbes (1758) and Bouquet (1763) expeditions were organized there. A munitions depot during the Revolution, Carlisle was a headquarters for Washington during the Whiskey RebellionWhiskey Rebellion,
1794, uprising in the Pennsylvania counties W of the Alleghenies, caused by Alexander Hamilton's excise tax of 1791. The settlers, mainly Scotch-Irish, for whom whiskey was an important economic commodity, resented the tax as discriminatory and detrimental to
..... Click the link for more information. in 1794. Molly PitcherPitcher, Molly,
1744–1832, American Revolutionary heroine whose real name was Mary Ludwig Hays or Heis, b. near Trenton, N.J. As the wife of John Hays or Heis, she carried water for her husband and other soldiers in the battle of Monmouth (1778) and earned her nickname.
..... Click the link for more information. is buried in the Old Graveyard. The borough was a stop on the Underground RailroadUnderground Railroad,
in U.S. history, loosely organized system for helping fugitive slaves escape to Canada or to areas of safety in free states. It was run by local groups of Northern abolitionists, both white and free blacks.
..... Click the link for more information. and was attacked during the Civil War by Gen. Fitzhugh Lee. Carlisle is the seat of the U.S. Army War College, Dickinson College, and Pennsylvania State Univ. Dickinson School of Law.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.
a city in Great Britain, on the Eden River, nearwhere it empties into Solway Firth (Irish Sea). Population, 71, 500 (1971). The city has railroad repair shops and metalwork-ing, textile, and food industries.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
a city in NW England, administrative centre of Cumbria: railway and industrial centre. Pop.: 71 773 (2001)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005