Carlists


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Related to Carlists: Falange, CEDA

Carlists,

partisans of Don CarlosCarlos
(Carlos María Isidro de Borbón), 1788–1855, second son of Charles IV of Spain. He was the first Carlist pretender. After his father's abdication (1808) he was, with the rest of his family, held a prisoner in France until 1814.
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 (1788–1855) and his successors, who claimed the Spanish throne under the Salic lawSalic law
, rule of succession in certain royal and noble families of Europe, forbidding females and those descended in the female line to succeed to the titles or offices in the family.
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 of succession, introduced (1713) by Philip V. The law (forced on Philip by the War of the Spanish SuccessionSpanish Succession, War of the,
1701–14, last of the general European wars caused by the efforts of King Louis XIV to extend French power. The conflict in America corresponding to the period of the War of the Spanish Succession was known as Queen Anne's War (see French and
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 to avoid a union of the French and Spanish crowns) was abrogated by Ferdinand VII in favor of his daughter, who succeeded him (1833) as Isabella IIIsabella II,
1830–1904, queen of Spain (1833–68), daughter of Ferdinand VII and of Maria Christina. Her uncle, Don Carlos, contested her succession under the Salic law, and thus the Carlist Wars began (see Carlists).
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. Ferdinand's brother, Don Carlos, refused to recognize Isabella and claimed the throne.

A civil war followed (First Carlist War, 1833–40), and in the hope of autonomy, most of the Basque Provs. and much of Catalonia supported Carlos. The Carlists' conservative and clericalist tendencies gave the dynastic conflict a political character, since the upper middle classes profited from the sale of church lands and supported Isabella. The Carlists enjoyed many early successes, especially under their great general, Tomas Zumalacarregui. After he was killed (1835) in battle, the greater strength of the Isabelline forces gradually made itself felt. In 1839 the Carlist commander Rafael Maroto yielded, but in Catalonia the Carlists under Ramón CabreraCabrera, Ramón, conde de Morella
, 1806–77, Spanish Carlist general. Noted for his valor and cruelty during the first Carlist war (see Carlists), he refused to accept the Carlist defeat in 1839 and continued the war in Valencia and Catalonia until driven into France
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 continued the struggle until 1840.

Don Carlos's son, Don Carlos, conde de Montemolín (1818–61), made an unsuccessful attempt at a new uprising in 1860. Montemolín's claims were revived by his nephew, Don Carlos, duque de Madrid (1848–1909), after the deposition (1868) of Isabella. Two insurrections (1869, 1872) failed, but after the abdication (1873) of King AmadeusAmadeus,
1845–90, king of Spain (1870–73), duke of Aosta, son of Victor Emmanuel II of Italy. After the expulsion (1868) of Queen Isabella II, Juan Prim urged the Cortes to elect Amadeus as king. He accepted the crown reluctantly.
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 and the proclamation of the first republic, the Carlists seized most of the Basque Provs. and parts of Catalonia, Aragón, and Valencia. The ensuing chaos and brutal warfare of this Second Carlist War ended in 1876, over a year after Alfonso XIIAlfonso XII,
1857–85, king of Spain (1874–85), son of Isabella II. He went into exile with his parents at the time of the revolt of the Carlists in 1868 and was educated in Austria and England.
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, son of Isabella, was proclaimed king. Don Carlos escaped to France.

In the next half century many defected from Carlist ranks, and several rival groups formed. Pressure against the church by the second republic (1931–39) helped revive Carlism, and the Carlists embraced the Nationalist cause in the Spanish civil war (1936–39). Under the Franco regime Carlism was for many years an obstacle to plans for restoring the main branch of the Bourbon dynasty, but in 1969, Franco overrode Carlist objections and named the Bourbon prince Juan Carlos IJuan Carlos I
, 1938–, king of Spain (1975–2014), b. Rome. The grandson of Alfonso XIII, he was educated in Switzerland and in Spain. Placed by his father, Don Juan de Borbón, under the care of Francisco Franco as a possible successor, he graduated from
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 as his successor.

Bibliography

See E. Holt, Carlist Wars in Spain (1967).

Carlists

 

representatives of the absolutist, clerical political current in Spain that relies on the reactionary clergy, the titled aristocracy, and the top army officers.

The movement received its name from the pretender to the Spanish throne, Don Carlos the Elder. In the 1830’s and 1870’s the Cariists unleashed major rebellions in Spain, known as the Carlist Wars. Later on, as the traditionalist movement, the Cariists supported the most reactionary forces in the country. Cariists were active in the military fascist rebellion of July 18-19, 1936, and collaborated with the Franco regime. Many of them supported Juan Carlos, who was confirmed in 1969 at Franco’s direction as the future king of Spain after Franco’s death. Many Cariists opposed several aspects of Franco’s policies from an absolutist and clerical viewpoint.

References in periodicals archive ?
This disillusion is soon countered by an unlikely example found in Julepa la de Arguina, a beggar who roams the roads as a spy for the Carlists.
The novel's most biting criticism is directed toward the secular participants of the Carlist cause.
The great interest in all traditional forms of pelota across the Basque Country made possible the creation, after the end of the last Carlist War in 1876, of companies that invested in the management of courts or 'frontones' with seating for paying spectators at which regular programmes of matches were held.
John Lawrence Tone has claimed that Carlist interventions in Spain during the Cuban movements for independence from 1868-1898 shaped the outcome of the war.
During the 1830s, Carlists wanted to reestablish the Bourbon Monarchy in Spain in order to stop the progressive rules of Charles 111 (1759-1788) and Charles IV (1788-1808), whose modern ideas to separate Church power from the Monarchy were unbearable concepts to them.
Later, we will direct our attention to the important role that developed the Carlists, Falangists and pro-Franco Catalanist.
The Carlists took their name from the conservative position they held regarding royal succession.
Even the manners of Granger's aunt--whose Parisian Salon des Causes Perdues, "a menagerie [of] Carlists, and Orleanists, and Papal Blacks" (123) looks forward to Conrad's Legitimist settings--"did not begin to assume frigidity until several watches of the day had passed" (208).
Nevertheless, the Buckley circle was heavily Catholic and included his brother-in-law Brent Bozell, an American follower of Spanish Carlism (the Carlists were the Catholic answer to the American Likudniks).
They are similar historically to the monarchical, Catholic, and neofeudal movements (the Carlists in Spain, for example) that haunted Europe for centuries after the transition to liberal capitalism.
What is needed is a process of administrative reform and decentralization which could take the wind out of the sails of Republicans, regionalists and Carlists alike.
He expects authoritarianism to come from the Right--what with all those Carlists and Iron Guardists out there in Iowa, I suppose--and recommends, in his endnotes, the "social scientific" nonsense of Theodor Adorno.