Carlists


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Related to Carlists: Falange, CEDA

Carlists

Carlists, partisans of Don Carlos (1788–1855) and his successors, who claimed the Spanish throne under the Salic law of succession, introduced (1713) by Philip V. The law (forced on Philip by the War of the Spanish Succession to avoid a union of the French and Spanish crowns) was abrogated by Ferdinand VII in favor of his daughter, who succeeded him (1833) as Isabella II. Ferdinand's brother, Don Carlos, refused to recognize Isabella and claimed the throne.

A civil war followed (First Carlist War, 1833–40), and in the hope of autonomy, most of the Basque Provs. and much of Catalonia supported Carlos. The Carlists' conservative and clericalist tendencies gave the dynastic conflict a political character, since the upper middle classes profited from the sale of church lands and supported Isabella. The Carlists enjoyed many early successes, especially under their great general, Tomas Zumalacarregui. After he was killed (1835) in battle, the greater strength of the Isabelline forces gradually made itself felt. In 1839 the Carlist commander Rafael Maroto yielded, but in Catalonia the Carlists under Ramón Cabrera continued the struggle until 1840.

Don Carlos's son, Don Carlos, conde de Montemolín (1818–61), made an unsuccessful attempt at a new uprising in 1860. Montemolín's claims were revived by his nephew, Don Carlos, duque de Madrid (1848–1909), after the deposition (1868) of Isabella. Two insurrections (1869, 1872) failed, but after the abdication (1873) of King Amadeus and the proclamation of the first republic, the Carlists seized most of the Basque Provs. and parts of Catalonia, Aragón, and Valencia. The ensuing chaos and brutal warfare of this Second Carlist War ended in 1876, over a year after Alfonso XII, son of Isabella, was proclaimed king. Don Carlos escaped to France.

In the next half century many defected from Carlist ranks, and several rival groups formed. Pressure against the church by the second republic (1931–39) helped revive Carlism, and the Carlists embraced the Nationalist cause in the Spanish civil war (1936–39). Under the Franco regime Carlism was for many years an obstacle to plans for restoring the main branch of the Bourbon dynasty, but in 1969, Franco overrode Carlist objections and named the Bourbon prince Juan Carlos I as his successor.

Bibliography

See E. Holt, Carlist Wars in Spain (1967).

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Carlists

 

representatives of the absolutist, clerical political current in Spain that relies on the reactionary clergy, the titled aristocracy, and the top army officers.

The movement received its name from the pretender to the Spanish throne, Don Carlos the Elder. In the 1830’s and 1870’s the Cariists unleashed major rebellions in Spain, known as the Carlist Wars. Later on, as the traditionalist movement, the Cariists supported the most reactionary forces in the country. Cariists were active in the military fascist rebellion of July 18-19, 1936, and collaborated with the Franco regime. Many of them supported Juan Carlos, who was confirmed in 1969 at Franco’s direction as the future king of Spain after Franco’s death. Many Cariists opposed several aspects of Franco’s policies from an absolutist and clerical viewpoint.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Dubbed "The Pretender" by those who rejected his claim, Carlos V in 1833 launched the first of four Carlist Wars, a split between members of the Royal Family that was mirrored in Spanish society.
This disillusion is soon countered by an unlikely example found in Julepa la de Arguina, a beggar who roams the roads as a spy for the Carlists. In Julepa the nun contemplates the longed-for sacred experience she lacks: the beggar is "entirely inflamed with the religious fervor of the common people, in whom the thirst for justice was paired with resplendent hope to find at war's end a merciful father in her King" (Resplandor 787).
What is of magnitude, though, is the historical milieu of the novel, i.e., Oleza as a center of the Carlist cause.
The great interest in all traditional forms of pelota across the Basque Country made possible the creation, after the end of the last Carlist War in 1876, of companies that invested in the management of courts or 'frontones' with seating for paying spectators at which regular programmes of matches were held.
During the 1830s, Carlists wanted to reestablish the Bourbon Monarchy in Spain in order to stop the progressive rules of Charles 111 (1759-1788) and Charles IV (1788-1808), whose modern ideas to separate Church power from the Monarchy were unbearable concepts to them.
The Carlists took their name from the conservative position they held regarding royal succession.
Even the manners of Granger's aunt--whose Parisian Salon des Causes Perdues, "a menagerie [of] Carlists, and Orleanists, and Papal Blacks" (123) looks forward to Conrad's Legitimist settings--"did not begin to assume frigidity until several watches of the day had passed" (208).
Nevertheless, the Buckley circle was heavily Catholic and included his brother-in-law Brent Bozell, an American follower of Spanish Carlism (the Carlists were the Catholic answer to the American Likudniks).
They are similar historically to the monarchical, Catholic, and neofeudal movements (the Carlists in Spain, for example) that haunted Europe for centuries after the transition to liberal capitalism.
The main threats to the status quo, he adds in a peculiarly old-fashioned way, come not from the military and the proletariat but rather from the Republicans and the Carlists, the former a bunch of irresponsible and often amoral anti-Catholics whose democratic demands have served only to increase political corruption, and the latter a group of well-meaning but intolerant patriots who lack political experience and effective leadership.
He expects authoritarianism to come from the Right--what with all those Carlists and Iron Guardists out there in Iowa, I suppose--and recommends, in his endnotes, the "social scientific" nonsense of Theodor Adorno.