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(kär`məlīts), Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars. Originally a group of hermits, apparently European, living on Mt. Carmel in Palestine, their supervision was undertaken (c.1150) by St. Berthold. In 1238 they moved to Cyprus, and thence to Western Europe. St. Simon Stock (d. 1265), an Englishman, was their second founder. He transformed them into an order of friars resembling Dominicans and Franciscans and founded monasteries at Oxford, Cambridge, Paris, and Bologna. They rapidly became prominent in university life. An enclosed order of Carmelite nuns was established. The Carmelites, like other orders, declined in the 15th cent. They were revived by St. TheresaTheresa or Teresa, Saint
(Theresa of Ávila) , 1515–82, Spanish Carmelite nun, Doctor of the Church, one of the principal saints of the Roman Catholic Church, one of the greatest mystics, and a leading
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 (of Ávila) and St. John of the CrossJohn of the Cross, Saint,
Span. Juan de la Cruz, 1542–91, Spanish mystic and poet, Doctor of the Church. His name was originally Juan de Yepes. He was a founder of the Discalced Carmelites and a close friend of St.
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 in 16th-century Spain. These great contemplatives gave the order a special orientation toward mysticism. Their reformed branch is the Discalced (or Barefoot) Carmelites; it is now more numerous than the Carmelites of the Old Observance. The Discalced Carmelites cultivate the contemplative life in all aspects, and they have produced many works on mystical theology. St. TheresaTheresa or Thérèse, Saint
(Theresa of Lisieux), 1873–97, French Carmelite nun, one of the most widely loved saints of the Roman Catholic Church, b. Alençon.
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 (of Lisieux) is a well-known Discalced Carmelite of the 19th cent. In 1790 the first community came to the United States and settled near Port Tobacco, Md. There are presently about 6,900 priests and brothers living in Carmelite communities, with 500 living in the United States.


See E. A. Peers, Spirit of Flame (1944, repr. 1961); P. Rohrback, Journey to the Carith (1966).



members of a Catholic mendicant monastic order, founded in the second half of the 12th century in Palestine by the Italian crusader Berthold.

The Carmelites’ first monastic community was located on Mount Carmel (hence the name). Their rule was approved byPope Honorius III in 1226. After the failure of the Crusades, theCarmelites moved to Western Europe (13th century), whereunder Pope Innocent IV they were turned into a mendicantorder in 1245 or 1247. In the 16th century the order was againreformed, after which it split into two branches (the Carmelitesand the Discalced, or Barefoot, Carmelites). In 1972 the ordernumbered about 8, 000 monks; the women’s order of Carmelites(established in the 15th century) numbered more than 12, 000nuns.

References in periodicals archive ?
The convent was also known commonly as Carmen de la Canadilla (Carmen refers to the Carmelite order and Canadilla to the neighborhood in Santiago).
In a chapter on "first foundations" she evokes the role of Barbe Acarie and her circle in establishing a French Carmelite order, sloughing off the tutelage of Mother Ana de Jesus and her entourage of Spanish nuns brought to ensure adherence to Saint Teresa's model.
Acarie practiced both heroic self-mortification and the life of an active reformer, most notably by establishing the Discalced Carmelite order in France.
Bernanos's last work, Dialogues of the Carmelites, consists of a play based on the historical martyrdom, just ten days before the fall of Robespierre in July 1794, of sixteen nuns, members of the Carmelite order from the monastery of Compiegne.
Jim Hay, solicitor for the Carmelite order, said after the case: "The order very much regret any suffering caused to the lady who has brought the complaint.
also provides helpful background on the establishment of the Carmelite order and the foundation of the reform, including John's meeting with Teresa of Avila.
Phillipa Carruth became a recluse in a council flat when she left the enclosed Carmelite Order where quiet prayer took up most of every day from 5.
Reichspogromnacht, November 9-10, 1938, caused Stein to flee from Germany for a safer Carmelite order in Echt, Holland.
Jotischky studies the origins and development of the Carmelite Order and concentrates in particular on the Carmelites' own historiography until about 1530.