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(kär`məlīts), Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars. Originally a group of hermits, apparently European, living on Mt. Carmel in Palestine, their supervision was undertaken (c.1150) by St. Berthold. In 1238 they moved to Cyprus, and thence to Western Europe. St. Simon Stock (d. 1265), an Englishman, was their second founder. He transformed them into an order of friars resembling Dominicans and Franciscans and founded monasteries at Oxford, Cambridge, Paris, and Bologna. They rapidly became prominent in university life. An enclosed order of Carmelite nuns was established. The Carmelites, like other orders, declined in the 15th cent. They were revived by St. TheresaTheresa or Teresa, Saint
(Theresa of Ávila) , 1515–82, Spanish Carmelite nun, Doctor of the Church, one of the principal saints of the Roman Catholic Church, one of the greatest mystics, and a leading
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 (of Ávila) and St. John of the CrossJohn of the Cross, Saint,
Span. Juan de la Cruz, 1542–91, Spanish mystic and poet, Doctor of the Church. His name was originally Juan de Yepes. He was a founder of the Discalced Carmelites and a close friend of St.
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 in 16th-century Spain. These great contemplatives gave the order a special orientation toward mysticism. Their reformed branch is the Discalced (or Barefoot) Carmelites; it is now more numerous than the Carmelites of the Old Observance. The Discalced Carmelites cultivate the contemplative life in all aspects, and they have produced many works on mystical theology. St. TheresaTheresa or Thérèse, Saint
(Theresa of Lisieux), 1873–97, French Carmelite nun, one of the most widely loved saints of the Roman Catholic Church, b. Alençon.
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 (of Lisieux) is a well-known Discalced Carmelite of the 19th cent. In 1790 the first community came to the United States and settled near Port Tobacco, Md. There are presently about 6,900 priests and brothers living in Carmelite communities, with 500 living in the United States.


See E. A. Peers, Spirit of Flame (1944, repr. 1961); P. Rohrback, Journey to the Carith (1966).

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



members of a Catholic mendicant monastic order, founded in the second half of the 12th century in Palestine by the Italian crusader Berthold.

The Carmelites’ first monastic community was located on Mount Carmel (hence the name). Their rule was approved byPope Honorius III in 1226. After the failure of the Crusades, theCarmelites moved to Western Europe (13th century), whereunder Pope Innocent IV they were turned into a mendicantorder in 1245 or 1247. In the 16th century the order was againreformed, after which it split into two branches (the Carmelitesand the Discalced, or Barefoot, Carmelites). In 1972 the ordernumbered about 8, 000 monks; the women’s order of Carmelites(established in the 15th century) numbered more than 12, 000nuns.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The Carmelite Order is an enclosed Catholic order founded in the 12th century by a group of Europeans led by a man commonly called Saint Bertold on Mount Carmel, Israel, where the order received its name.
The Lancastrians felt a strong allegiance to the Carmelite Order, from Henry of Grosmont in the late 1350s who had appointed William de Reynham as his confessor, to Henry V and his brothers.
In a chapter on "first foundations" she evokes the role of Barbe Acarie and her circle in establishing a French Carmelite order, sloughing off the tutelage of Mother Ana de Jesus and her entourage of Spanish nuns brought to ensure adherence to Saint Teresa's model.
While Polish Jesuits seemed to have written many anti-Jewish treatises (they claimed of course the credit of re-converting the Polish nobility from Protestantism), the superior of the Carmelite Order expressly criticized beliefs in the blood libel and host desecration.
They reflect seriously on the implications involved in offering their lives as a free and heroic sacrifice for the preservation of the Carmelite order and the salvation of France.
Jim Hay, solicitor for the Carmelite order, said after the case: "The order very much regret any suffering caused to the lady who has brought the complaint.
also provides helpful background on the establishment of the Carmelite order and the foundation of the reform, including John's meeting with Teresa of Avila.
These qualities, adapted to the spiritual way of life, are realised by those who choose to enter a Carmelite order. The women's branch of the order was born out of a desire by certain pious women to devote themselves to the spirit of Carmel, under the guidance of the Carmelite friars.
Phillipa Carruth became a recluse in a council flat when she left the enclosed Carmelite Order where quiet prayer took up most of every day from 5.30am to 11.15pm.
Reichspogromnacht, November 9-10, 1938, caused Stein to flee from Germany for a safer Carmelite order in Echt, Holland.