Elizabeth

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Elizabeth

, empress of Austria and queen of Hungary
Elizabeth, 1837–98, empress of Austria and queen of Hungary. A Bavarian princess, she was married (1854) to her cousin, Emperor Francis Joseph. Despite her exceptional beauty, intelligence, and kindness she led an unhappy domestic life, which was marred, moreover, by family tragedies (notably the death of her only son, Archduke Rudolf, and the death of one of her sisters in the charity bazaar fire in Paris, 1897). Independent and unconventional, she avoided the stiff etiquette of the Viennese court and spent much of her time abroad, chiefly on Corfu. She was assassinated by the Italian anarchist Luccheni in Geneva, Switzerland.

Bibliography

See biography J. Haslip (1965).


Elizabeth

, czarina of Russia
Elizabeth, 1709–62, czarina of Russia (1741–62), daughter of Peter I and Catherine I. She gained the throne by overthrowing the young czar, Ivan VI, and the regency of his mother, Anna Leopoldovna. Her coup was made possible by her popularity with the imperial guards, who hated the German favorites of Anna Leopoldovna. Elizabeth herself, armed, led the bloodless revolution. Guided in her foreign policy by her chancellor, A. P. Bestuzhev-Ryumin, Elizabeth sought to rid Russia of German influence. She victoriously sided against Frederick II of Prussia in the Seven Years War, but her death and the accession of her nephew, Peter III, took Russia out of the war and made Frederick's ultimate victory possible. During her reign the nobles acquired more power over their serfs and gained a dominant position in local government, while the terms of service they owed the state were shortened. The Moscow Univ. (now Moscow State Univ.) and the Academy of Fine Arts in St. Petersburg were founded during her reign.

Elizabeth

, queen of Bohemia
Elizabeth, 1596–1662, queen of Bohemia, daughter of James I of England. Her beauty attracted most of the royal suitors of Europe (she was nicknamed the “Queen of Hearts”), but she was married (1613) to Frederick V, elector palatine (see Frederick the Winter King) in order to cement an alliance between English and German Protestantism. She became queen of Bohemia in 1619, when her husband accepted the crown offered by the Bohemian diet. After Frederick was defeated (1620) in the battle of the White Mt., Elizabeth took up her residence in Holland, where she courageously endured privation and misfortune. She received little support from abroad, even from her son Charles Louis, who was restored to the Palatinate in 1648. In 1661 she returned to England against the wishes of King Charles II, who, however, pensioned her. Among her children were Prince Rupert; Princess Elizabeth, who was the patroness of Descartes; and Sophia, who was electress of Hanover and mother of George I of England.

Elizabeth

, queen of Romania
Elizabeth, 1843–1916, queen of Romania, consort of King Carol I, whom she married in 1869. Of German birth, she was the daughter of Hermann, prince of Wied. She completely identified herself with her adopted people and devoted herself to their cultural development. Under the pseudonym Carmen Sylva the queen wrote extensively and with almost equal facility in German, French, English, and Romanian. She collaborated on several books with her lady-in-waiting, Mite Kremnitz.

Elizabeth

, queen consort of George VI of Great Britain
Elizabeth, 1900–2002, queen consort of George VI of Great Britain, mother of Elizabeth II and Princess Margaret, b. London. She was Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon until her marriage (1923). During the Blitz in World War II, she and the king remained in London, becoming symbols of courage to the British people. Elizabeth assumed the title Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother, when her daughter was crowned. An active public figure, affectionately called the “Queen Mum,” she was chancellor of the Univ. of London (1955–80) and one of the most enduringly popular members of the royal family.

Bibliography

See biography by W. Shawcross (2009).


Elizabeth

, sister of King Louis XVI of France
Elizabeth, 1764–94, sister of King Louis XVI of France, known as Madame Elizabeth. Deeply loyal to her brother, she remained in France during the French Revolution, suffered imprisonment, and was guillotined.

Elizabeth

, city, United States

Elizabeth, city (2020 pop. 137,298), seat of Union co., NE N.J., on Newark Bay; inc. 1855. It is a shipping and transportation hub, with some of the world's largest containerized dock facilities at Port Elizabeth. Since 1985 the harbor, as part of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, has seen a steady increase in the volume of containerized exports. Highly industrialized, Elizabeth makes furnaces, plastics, chemicals, metal and food products, tea, paperboard boxes, and pharmaceuticals. A campus of Union College is in the city. The Goethals Bridge (1928) links Elizabeth with Staten Island, N.Y., and Newark International Airport is nearby. Since the 1980s the Jersey Gardens Mall (a group of outlet stores later renamed The Mills at Jersey City) has made Elizabeth a retailing center.

The area was purchased (1664) from the Delaware and called Elizabethtown. From 1668 to 1682, Elizabeth borough served as the meeting place of the New Jersey assembly. Chartered as the town of Elizabeth in 1740, it was the scene of several Revolutionary clashes; many buildings were burned (1780). Among surviving older buildings are the 18th-century Elias Boudinot House and the 17th-century Nathaniel Bonnell House. Early industries were tanning and brewing. In the 19th cent., Elizabeth's proximity to New York City and the coming of the railroad stimulated great industrial expansion, especially in shipbuilding, machine production, and oil refining. Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr lived at times in Elizabeth.

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2022, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Elizabeth

 

a city in the northeastern USA, in the state of New Jersey; a western suburb of New York. Population, 106,000 (1975). The city is a port on Newark Bay, an inlet of the Atlantic Ocean. Elizabeth’s industries include the production of chemicals, oil refining, food processing, clothing manufacture, metalworking, and printing. Sewing machines, toys, and radioelectronics equipment are manufactured. The city was founded in 1664.


Elizabeth

 

a city in southern Australia, in the state of South Australia. Population, 31,000 (1965). Elizabeth, a satellite city of Adelaide, has plants specializing in automotive assembly, the manufacture of automobile parts and synthetic rubber, and the production of electrical and radio engineering equipment.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Elizabeth

Mary’s old cousin; bears John the Baptist. [N.T.: Luke 1:36–80]

Elizabeth

Virgin’s kinswoman, blessed with pregnancy as old woman. [N.T.: Luke 1:5–25]

Elizabeth

dies when Tannhauser vows return to Venus. [Ger. Opera: Wagner, Tannhauser, Westerman, 212]
Allusions—Cultural, Literary, Biblical, and Historical: A Thematic Dictionary. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Elizabeth

1
1. Saint New Testament the wife of Zacharias, mother of John the Baptist, and kinswoman of the Virgin Mary. Feast day: Nov. 5 or 8
2. pen name Carmen Sylva. 1843--1916, queen of Romania (1881--1914) and author
3. Russian name Yelizaveta Petrovna. 1709--62, empress of Russia (1741--62); daughter of Peter the Great
4. title the Queen Mother; original name Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon. 1900--2002, queen of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (1936--52) as the wife of George VI; mother of Elizabeth II

Elizabeth

2
1. a city in NE New Jersey, on Newark Bay. Pop.: 123 215 (2003 est.)
2. a town in SE South Australia, near Adelaide. Pop.: 34 000 (latest est.)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Natalie Violet Watts, 31, of Carmen Sylva Road, Craig-y-Don, Llandudno, who works at a seafront hotel, said: "I apologise for my behaviour, I'm in my thirties and shouldn't be doing this type of thing.
Despite the example of his queen, who was an untiring author of plays, poems, and novels in several languages under the pseudonym Carmen Sylva, the literary culture remained limited.
Another example, the Pedagogical High School "Carmen Sylva" from Timisoara has won a competition and received a prize consisting of 31 high end tablets, two laptops, a smart board and dedicated software.
Other women writers also used pen names: Dora d'Istria (Princess Elena Ghica), Smara (Smaranda Gheorghiu) or Carmen Sylva (Elisabeta de Neuwied, Queen of Romania).
Tuttavia Ada Negri attraverso il primo Novecento imponendosi appunto come la Poetessa d'Italia; ottenne una ampia e lusinghiera attenzione da parte del pubblico estero con il privilegio di innumerevoli traduzioni (in francese, in inglese, in tedesco, in spagnolo, in catalano, in russo, in giapponese ecc ...) guadagnandosi la stima e l'amicizia di letterati stranieri, come ad esempio della regina Elisabetta di Romania, poetessa di lingua tedesca che firmava i suoi versi col bucolico pseudonimo di Carmen Sylva, ed arrivando persino ad essere proposta per il Nobel della letteratura, che verra poi, per ragioni di opportunita politica, assegnato alla pur grande Grazia Deledda.
Her brief stay, just over four weeks, is commemorated by Roumania Drive, and Carmen Sylva Road (after her poetic name) Princess Diana with Prince Charles at Gresford Colliery in 1982.
Colin McCall, 41, of Carmen Sylva Road, Llandudno, had signed four cheques belonging to his parents to pay pounds 1,500, Caernarfon Crown Court was told.
Former heroin addict Hunter, 39, of Carmen Sylva Road, Craig y Don, Llandudno, pleaded guilty at the town's magistrates to burgling a seafront hotel where a director caught him stealing 30kgs of sirloin steak.
An impressive number of examples of this networking could be found during the different presentations dealing with the concrete examples of Anglophone and German women authors, Eugenie Marlitt or Carmen Sylva. These presentations were put into perspective by those dedicated to methodological items such as the place of gender in literary historiography.
At around 8pm we noticed a gang of around eight youths fooling about near the shelter on Craig y Don promenade between Queens Road and Carmen Sylva Road.
The parking offence occurred on April 17 and the PC involved spoke to car driver Inger Karlson, 62, of Carmen Sylva Road, Llandudno, on the day.