Carniola

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Carniola

(kärnēō`lə), Croatian Kranj, historic region, in Slovenia. The history of this largely mountainous area is closely linked with that of SloveniaSlovenia
, Slovene Slovenija, officially Republic of Slovenia, republic (2015 est. pop. 2,075,000), 7,817 sq mi (20,246 sq km). It is bounded in the north by Austria, in the northeast by Hungary, in the southeast by Croatia, and in the west by Italy.
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. The first known inhabitants, a Celtic tribe called the Carni, were displaced by the Romans, who made Carniola part of their province of PannoniaPannonia
, ancient Roman province, central Europe, southwest of the Danube, including parts of modern Austria, Hungary, Slovenia, Croatia, and Serbia. Its natives, the warlike Pannonians, were Illyrians. Their final subjugation by Rome took place in A.D. 9.
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. Slovenes settled Carniola in the 6th cent. CharlemagneCharlemagne
(Charles the Great or Charles I) [O.Fr.,=Charles the great], 742?–814, emperor of the West (800–814), Carolingian king of the Franks (768–814).
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 later incorporated it into his empire. The region became a march, or margraviate, under Bavarian suzerainty in the 10th cent. and in 1269 was acquired by BohemiaBohemia,
Czech Čechy, historic region (20,368 sq mi/52,753 sq km) and former kingdom, in W and central Czech Republic. Bohemia is bounded by Austria in the southeast, by Germany in the west and northwest, by Poland in the north and northeast, and by Moravia in the
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. It passed to the Austrian Hapsburgs in 1282 and was made (1364) a titular duchy. In 1849 its status was raised to a crown land. LjubljanaLjubljana
, Ger. Laibach, city (1991 pop. 267,008), capital of Slovenia, on the Sava River. An industrial and transportation center, it has industries that manufacture textiles, paper, chemicals, and electronics.
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 was its chief city. After World War I, Carniola was divided between Italy and Yugoslavia, but the Italian part passed to what was then Yugoslavia's constituent republic of Slovenia in 1947.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Carniola

 

(in Slovene, Kranjska; in German, Krain), a historical region in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula.

The nucleus of Carniola was lands in the basin of the Sava River. In antiquity Carniola was populated by tribes of Celts and Illyrians, and in the late sixth century it was settled by Slavs (Slovenes). From the sixth to eighth centuries it was ruled by the Avars. In the late eighth century it was incorporated into the Frankish state. From the second half of the tenth to the early 11th century, part of Carniola belonged to the duchy of Greater Carinthia, the remainder being part of the Slovene march. Until the second half of the 13th century, various German feudal families ruled Carniola; in 1335 it came under the Hapsburgs. Carniola became a duchy in 1364, later becoming one of the Hapsburgs’ crown lands. In the 16th century it was a center of large-scale peasant uprisings (1515 and 1573) and of the Reformation; the Slovene national movement sprang up there in the 19th century. In 1920 much of Carniola was incorporated into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (since 1929, Yugoslavia), the rest going to Italy. Under the 1947 peace treaty with Italy, all of Carniola, as part of Slovenia, was reunified with Yugoslavia.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Carniola

a region of N Slovenia: a former duchy and crownland of Austria (1335--1919); divided between Yugoslavia and Italy in 1919; part of Yugoslavia (1947--92)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
To predict honey production as a response variable, several potential predictors in the survey were recorded such as age of enterprise, province of enterprise (Agri, Kars and Erzurum), enterprise's educational level, membership status of enterprise to association of beekeepers (member and nonmember), other activities except for beekeeping (yes and no), number of full beehives, bee race (Caucasian, Carniolan, Italian and Crossbred), and frequency of changing queen bee.
Comparative study for evaluating two honey bee races, Apis mellifera jemenitica (indigenous race) and Apis mellifera carnica (Carniolan race) in brood production, population development and foraging activity under the environmental conditions of the central region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Her current work involves increasing genetic diversity in the general bee population and more specifically in her New World Carniolan closed breeding population, which she established in 1981.
Totesport.com Challenge Cup Totesport: 10 Giganticus, 12 Carniolan, Furnace, Tajneed, 14 Cape Hawk, Mastership, Military Cross, Relative Order, We'll Come, Zaahid, 16 bar.
DONCASTER: 1.30 Satwa Laird, 2.00 Perks, 2.35 Loch Verdi (nap), 3.10 Bonnie Charlie, 3.45 Carniolan, 4.20 Grudge.
In the next, Kalahari Gold, a good fourth to Carniolan last time, should go well along with Jeremy Noseda's Liberation Spirit, a length and a half too good for Warden Fizz at headquarters.
The Oasis Dream colt refused to settle on his first racecourse appearance at Salisbury, but he picked up well from the rear to beat a subsequent dual winner in Carniolan.
The Oasis Dream colt refused to settle on his ;rst racecourse appearance at Salisbury, but he picked up well from the rear to beat a subsequent dual winner in Carniolan.
Robert started keeping bees 35 years ago as a boy of 14 and has experimented widely with the Italian and Carniolan strains popular with some breeders.
In 1821, two years after Zois's death, Bishop Augustin Gruber proposed at a meeting of the Carniolan States that Ljubljana needed a public natural history museum.
Several potential factors thought as independent variables in the survey were age of beekeeper (AB; mean: 52, 25 to 80 age), education level (EL; illiterate(EL_1), literate (EL_2), primary school (EL_3), secondary school (EL_4), high school (EL_5), two-year degree (EL_6) and bachelor's degree (EL_7)), number of full beehives (NFB; mean: 66, 20 to 260), bee race (BR, Caucasian (BR_1), Caucasian crossbreed (BR_2) and Carniolan (BR_3)), the time spent in plateau (TSP; mean: 118 day, 98 to 180 days), feed of autumn and spring (FAS; kg), working period in apiculture during year (WPA; mean: 64 day, 0 to 180 days), frequency of changing queen (FCQ; mean: 2 number/year, 1 to 5 number/year), and controlling beehives in summer (CFB; mean: 20 number/summer, 3 to 30 number/summer), respectively.