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C9H14N4O3 A colorless, crystalline dipeptide occurring in the muscle tissue of vertebrates.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



C9H14O3N4, a dipeptide (/3-alanyl histidine), composed of the amino acids of /3-alanine and L-histidine. Discovered by G. S. Gulevich in 1900 in a meat extract. Molecular weight, 226. It crystallizes into colorless needles that are readily soluble in water but insoluble in alcohol. It is found in the skeletal musculature of most vertebrates.

Carnosine and its constituent amino acids are absent in certain species of fish (only L-histidine or /3-alanine is present); it does not occur in the muscle of invertebrates. The carnosine content in the muscle of vertebrates usually varies from 200 to 400 mg percent raw muscle weight, depending on the muscular structure and function; in the human body it ranges between 100 and 150 mg percent.

Carnosine has diverse effects on the biochemical processes that occur in skeletal muscles; however, its biological role has not been definitively established. The addition of carnosine to a solution bathing the muscle of the isolated neuromyal specimen causes restoration of contractions of the fatigued muscle.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Protection of neuronal cells against reactive oxygen species by carnosine and related compounds.
Four weeks of BA supplementation was used because this time frame has been found to elicit a significant increase in muscle carnosine levels and reduction in subjective levels of fatigue (18,20,28,29,31).
In addition, the claimed methods allow for a loading phase and a maintenance phase of supplementation and allows for further loading after achieving and maintaining a desired level of muscle carnosine, concluded the company.
The following substances have been used in the experiment: Lithium ascorbate (synthesized in laboratory), carnosine - the dipeptide (3-alanyl-L-histidine (Yonezawa Hamari Chemicals, Japan), as reference drug and ascorbic acid (Sigma-Aldrich, Germany)as a standard and widely used antioxidant (Figure 1).
The reduced quadratic mixture model predicted that carnosine and fenoldopam mesylate, separately and together, had a beneficial effect on morphology (Table 6).
Research reported in the American Journal of Therapeutics found that carnosine - present in chicken soup - could help the immune system fight off the flu virus in its early stages.
The localization of the gene on chromosome 18q22.3-23 was the first identified genetic loci in Turkish DKD patients of T2DM [4], which is in the region of carnosinase genes, and the polymorphism of relevant genes of carnosine dipeptidase (CNDP)1 and 2 was later proved to be related with the progression of DKD in T2DM patients [5,6].
General reagents, gelatin, anti-[beta]-tubulin mouse monoclonal antibody (moAb) and peroxidase-conjugated secondary antibodies, carnosine, lysine, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), GO, MGO, and glutaraldehyde (GA) were purchased from Sigma.
Cysteine and carnosine have a number of antioxidant properties (Carlsen et al, 2002; Levonen et al, 2004).
Beef contains creatine (which forms energy reserves in the brain and muscles) and carnosine (an antioxidant responsible for protecting cells from degenerative processes).