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C9H14N4O3 A colorless, crystalline dipeptide occurring in the muscle tissue of vertebrates.



C9H14O3N4, a dipeptide (/3-alanyl histidine), composed of the amino acids of /3-alanine and L-histidine. Discovered by G. S. Gulevich in 1900 in a meat extract. Molecular weight, 226. It crystallizes into colorless needles that are readily soluble in water but insoluble in alcohol. It is found in the skeletal musculature of most vertebrates.

Carnosine and its constituent amino acids are absent in certain species of fish (only L-histidine or /3-alanine is present); it does not occur in the muscle of invertebrates. The carnosine content in the muscle of vertebrates usually varies from 200 to 400 mg percent raw muscle weight, depending on the muscular structure and function; in the human body it ranges between 100 and 150 mg percent.

Carnosine has diverse effects on the biochemical processes that occur in skeletal muscles; however, its biological role has not been definitively established. The addition of carnosine to a solution bathing the muscle of the isolated neuromyal specimen causes restoration of contractions of the fatigued muscle.


References in periodicals archive ?
Effect on muscle fibre morphology and carnosine content after 12 days training of Korean speed skaters.
A powerful endogenous antioxidant found most abundantly in mammalian tissues, especially brain and skeletal muscle tissue, carnosine is a dipeptide of alanine and histidine.
The five-SKU facial care range includes an eye cream and anti-age serum, both of which team hyaluronic acid and carnosine.
Turkey is abundant in an amino acid called carnosine that is essential in slowing down the skin aging process and delaying the appearance of wrinkles.
suggests chicken has effect A report in the journal Nutrients says compounds in the chicken, called anserine and carnosine, may have relaxing effects on the brain.
To intensively hydrate the skin and to slow down premature skin ageing, a product with carnosine and antioxidants such as Naqi Body Care and Naqi Foot Cream are recommended to prevent the formation of AGEs.
Influence of b-alanine supplementation on skeletal muscle carnosine concentrations and high intensity cycling capacity, 32: 225-233.
Carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) is a dipeptide of the amino acids beta-alanine and histidine.
The team at University of South Florida (USF) developed nutritional supplement, containing extracts from blueberries and green tea combined with vitamin D3 and amino acids, including carnosine, which was tested by them in a clinical trial enrolling 105 healthy adults, ages 65 to 85.
Carnosine is an antioxidant, has antiglycating activity and binds heavy metals (Meletis 2007).