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C9H14N4O3 A colorless, crystalline dipeptide occurring in the muscle tissue of vertebrates.



C9H14O3N4, a dipeptide (/3-alanyl histidine), composed of the amino acids of /3-alanine and L-histidine. Discovered by G. S. Gulevich in 1900 in a meat extract. Molecular weight, 226. It crystallizes into colorless needles that are readily soluble in water but insoluble in alcohol. It is found in the skeletal musculature of most vertebrates.

Carnosine and its constituent amino acids are absent in certain species of fish (only L-histidine or /3-alanine is present); it does not occur in the muscle of invertebrates. The carnosine content in the muscle of vertebrates usually varies from 200 to 400 mg percent raw muscle weight, depending on the muscular structure and function; in the human body it ranges between 100 and 150 mg percent.

Carnosine has diverse effects on the biochemical processes that occur in skeletal muscles; however, its biological role has not been definitively established. The addition of carnosine to a solution bathing the muscle of the isolated neuromyal specimen causes restoration of contractions of the fatigued muscle.


References in periodicals archive ?
Genetic parameters of carnitine, creatine, creatinine, carnosine, and anserine concentration in longissimus muscle and their association with palatability traits in Angus cattle.
Supplementing with CarnoSyn beta-alanine, which combines with histidine in the body to form carnosine, significantly increases the levels of carnosine in the muscle.
Another nutrient called carnosine can boost these effects even further.
The absorption of orally supplied b-alanine and its effect on muscle carnosine synthesis in human vastuslateralis, 30: 279-289.
The soft lens, all-in-one solution, contains carnosine, an antioxidant that supports the natural defence mechanism of the cornea against harmful free radicals and Provitamin B5 (Dexpanthenol) which cares, supports and protects regeneration of damaged corneal cells.
Compared with carnosine (50 mg/ kg), as positive control ESF (20mg/kg) significantly reduced infarct volume and neurological deficits.
Carnosine and oxidative stress in cells and tissues.
A source of a range of endogenous antioxidants and other bioactive substances, including taurine, carnitine, carnosine, ubiquinone, glutathione and creatine
Effect of carnosine homocarnosine and anserine on hydroxylation of the guanine moiety in 2'-deoxyguanosine, DNA and nucleohistone with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of nickel(II).
It is packed with vitamins A, C and E, and a ``breakthrough combination of carnosine and wolfberry plant.