Carnosine


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carnosine

[′kär·nə‚sēn]
(biochemistry)
C9H14N4O3 A colorless, crystalline dipeptide occurring in the muscle tissue of vertebrates.

Carnosine

 

C9H14O3N4, a dipeptide (/3-alanyl histidine), composed of the amino acids of /3-alanine and L-histidine. Discovered by G. S. Gulevich in 1900 in a meat extract. Molecular weight, 226. It crystallizes into colorless needles that are readily soluble in water but insoluble in alcohol. It is found in the skeletal musculature of most vertebrates.

Carnosine and its constituent amino acids are absent in certain species of fish (only L-histidine or /3-alanine is present); it does not occur in the muscle of invertebrates. The carnosine content in the muscle of vertebrates usually varies from 200 to 400 mg percent raw muscle weight, depending on the muscular structure and function; in the human body it ranges between 100 and 150 mg percent.

Carnosine has diverse effects on the biochemical processes that occur in skeletal muscles; however, its biological role has not been definitively established. The addition of carnosine to a solution bathing the muscle of the isolated neuromyal specimen causes restoration of contractions of the fatigued muscle.

S. E. SEVERIN

References in periodicals archive ?
Effect on muscle fibre morphology and carnosine content after 12 days training of Korean speed skaters.
A powerful endogenous antioxidant found most abundantly in mammalian tissues, especially brain and skeletal muscle tissue, carnosine is a dipeptide of alanine and histidine.
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Influence of b-alanine supplementation on skeletal muscle carnosine concentrations and high intensity cycling capacity, 32: 225-233.
Carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) is a dipeptide of the amino acids beta-alanine and histidine.
The team at University of South Florida (USF) developed nutritional supplement, containing extracts from blueberries and green tea combined with vitamin D3 and amino acids, including carnosine, which was tested by them in a clinical trial enrolling 105 healthy adults, ages 65 to 85.
Carnosine is an antioxidant, has antiglycating activity and binds heavy metals (Meletis 2007).