Carolina


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Carolina

(kärōlē`nä), city (1990 pop. 177,806), Puerto Rico. Located 7 mi (11 km) SE of San Juan, it is a residential suburb of the capital, as well as a commercial and industrial center. Pharmaceuticals and chemical and electronic products are manufactured. Many banking institutions are there, as are the Univ. of Puerto Rico–Carolina, the Universidad del Caribe, and the Colegio Universitario del Este. Louis Muñoz Marín international airport is located in Carolina.

Carolina

 

a national German criminal code compiled in 1532.

The Carolina was named after Emperor Charles V. In addition to German customary law, in particular the penal code of Bamberg of 1507, the sources used by the compilers of the Carolina were statutes borrowed from Roman law and several Italian legal forms. Striving to unify German law, the code took into consideration the particularist tendencies of the various German lands. Its significance as a national German code was reduced by the qualification that the age-old, inherited, and lawful customs, that is, the privileges of the princes and feudal estates, were to be preserved.

Like the “bloody legislation” in Great Britain, which allowed the persecution of the peasant paupers, the Carolina was harsh toward the poor: malicious vagrants, it said, “should be executed as soon as they are taken to prison regardless of whether they have committed any other deed” (Karolina, Alma-Ata, 1967, pp. 191–92). Legal procedures made up the basic content of the Carolina. The code also defined a broad range of punishable deeds, including state, religious, and purely criminal offenses. It defined such concepts of criminal law as complicity, attempted murder, and aiding and abetting.

Published seven years after the Peasants’ War in Germany, the Carolina placed almost unlimited severity at the basis of criminal justice. For state, religious, property, and many other crimes, it provided for burning at the stake, quartering, breaking on the wheel, hanging, drowning, burying alive, dragging to the place of execution, torture with red-hot tongs, and the cutting off of hands, among other punishments. Judicial discretion was not restricted in any essential way. Questioning under torture was recognized as the normal form of investigation

The Carolina exerted a great influence on German particularist legislation: in some areas it simply was reissued as the locally valid law; in others, it was supplemented and revised. The code was in effect until the end of the 18th century.

REFERENCES

Karolina. Translated from Middle German, with an introduction and commentary by S. Ia. Bulatov. Alma-Ata, 1967.

Z. M. CHERNILOVSKII

Carolina

a former English colony on the E coast of North America, first established in 1663: divided in 1729 into North and South Carolina, which are often referred to as the Carolinas
References in periodicals archive ?
Imagine the reaction in North Carolina if it was widely known that Carroll struck out in his attempts to interview for the job.
It is my hope and it is my expectation that the men of Virginia will receive the flag with favor, and will look kindly upon the Regiment which bears it, for the sake of those ladies of South Carolina who have sent it.
Our results indicate that traditional public schools in North Carolina responded to even the limited competition provided by charter schools by improving their average proficiency rates.
The North Carolina legislature was wary--it knew and resented the discontent of the state's western citizens-but passed a bill in May 1784 giving away the truculent western counties, though stipulating that they would remain part of the state if Congress declined to accept them.
We checked one voice against another and then a third and wound up totally convinced: If ever there was such a thing as a perfect pitch, Roy Williams and North Carolina were it.
The text of the Carolina describes itself, in fact, not as a code of laws but as a compilation of legal rules, drawn up under imperial authority to spread legal knowledge more thoroughly among local officials and court personnel.
South Carolina seems to be awash With church-state conflict these days.
The Carolina Alliance for Fair Employment, a statewide grassroots group based in Greenville, South Carolina, is working to fill this void.
The North Carolina Department of Revenue has ruled that a partnership whose only activities within the state are in the nature of an investment account (in which securities are held for capital appreciation and income, dividends and interest are received, and stocks and bonds occasionally sold) will not be deemed to carry on a trade or business in North Carolina.
A University of California geography professor, Johnson happily accepted a new post as endowed professor at the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill.
NEW YORK -- Loews Corporation (NYSE:LTR;CG) announced today the declaration of a quarterly dividend on its Carolina Group stock, in the amount of $0.
Despite Tim Floyd's warnings to remain focused, USC came out lethargic and mistake-prone before pulling away to beat a winless North Carolina A&T 68-38 Friday in front of 1,307 at the Sports Arena.