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Carolina (kärōlēˈnä), city, Puerto Rico. Located 7 mi (11 km) SE of San Juan, it is a residential suburb of the capital, as well as a commercial and industrial center. Pharmaceuticals and chemical and electronic products are manufactured. Many banking institutions are there, as are the Univ. of Puerto Rico–Carolina, the Universidad del Caribe, and the Colegio Universitario del Este. Louis Muñoz Marín international airport is located in Carolina.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a national German criminal code compiled in 1532.

The Carolina was named after Emperor Charles V. In addition to German customary law, in particular the penal code of Bamberg of 1507, the sources used by the compilers of the Carolina were statutes borrowed from Roman law and several Italian legal forms. Striving to unify German law, the code took into consideration the particularist tendencies of the various German lands. Its significance as a national German code was reduced by the qualification that the age-old, inherited, and lawful customs, that is, the privileges of the princes and feudal estates, were to be preserved.

Like the “bloody legislation” in Great Britain, which allowed the persecution of the peasant paupers, the Carolina was harsh toward the poor: malicious vagrants, it said, “should be executed as soon as they are taken to prison regardless of whether they have committed any other deed” (Karolina, Alma-Ata, 1967, pp. 191–92). Legal procedures made up the basic content of the Carolina. The code also defined a broad range of punishable deeds, including state, religious, and purely criminal offenses. It defined such concepts of criminal law as complicity, attempted murder, and aiding and abetting.

Published seven years after the Peasants’ War in Germany, the Carolina placed almost unlimited severity at the basis of criminal justice. For state, religious, property, and many other crimes, it provided for burning at the stake, quartering, breaking on the wheel, hanging, drowning, burying alive, dragging to the place of execution, torture with red-hot tongs, and the cutting off of hands, among other punishments. Judicial discretion was not restricted in any essential way. Questioning under torture was recognized as the normal form of investigation

The Carolina exerted a great influence on German particularist legislation: in some areas it simply was reissued as the locally valid law; in others, it was supplemented and revised. The code was in effect until the end of the 18th century.


Karolina. Translated from Middle German, with an introduction and commentary by S. Ia. Bulatov. Alma-Ata, 1967.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


a former English colony on the E coast of North America, first established in 1663: divided in 1729 into North and South Carolina, which are often referred to as the Carolinas
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
The bulletin authorizes the licensing of temporary adjusters and motor vehicle physical damage appraisers for claims expected to come after the storm impacts South Carolina this week.
Carolina Financial Corporation (NASDAQ: CARO), the holding company of CresCom Bank, and Carolina Trust BancShares Inc.
Under the terms of the approved merger agreement, each share of Clover common stock and preferred stock was converted into the right to receive, at the election of each Clover shareholder, either 2.7181 shares of Carolina Trust common stock or USD 22.00 in cash, subject to customary proration procedures that will result in an aggregate 80% stock/20% cash consideration mix.
The energy company said, in a news release, that work to modernize power plants and generate cleaner electricity, responsibly manage coal ash, improve reliability and continually enhance service is at the heart of a request by Duke Energy Carolinas to change customer rates in South Carolina.
The death toll attributed to Florence stands at 17, including 11 in North Carolina and six in South Carolina.
Clare Armstrong-Seward, New York; Allen Beck, Missouri; Sheri Bellow, Maryland; Gayle Burrow, Oregon; Patricia Caruso, Michigan; Larry Coleman, Nebraska; Hugh Daley, Ohio; David Davis, Indiana; Hans Faassen, North Carolina; Carl Frederick, South Carolina; Tracy Gearon, Ohio; Robert Goble, South Carolina; Michael Harling, Texas; Marie Hartsfield, North Carolina; Artis Hobbs, Arkansas; Gloria Hultz, Florida; Carl James, Georgia; Edgardo Lopez, New York; Jimmy May, New York; Glen Parin, Arizona; Dutton Peters, New Jersey; William Radaker, Ohio; Bernard Rochford, Ohio; Norman Rose, Ohio; James Saffle, Oklahoma; John Shaffer, Pennsylvania; C.
North Carolina takes on Gonzaga Monday night at University of Phoenix Stadium in what is a virtual tossup.
Carolina Metal Castings (Hardeeville, South Carolina) announced it is expanding.
It's the reason that Carolina Aeronautical is now one of the leading schools in the field, due to their newest selection of compelling courses.
South Carolina Exchange Luncheon October 28, 2013 The Capital City Club Columbia, South Carolina
International Resource News-January 30, 2012--The North Carolina Utilities Commission approves Duke Energy Carolinas' request to increase electric rates(C)1994-2012 ENPublishing -