Caroline Islands

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Related to Caroline Islands: Gilbert Islands, Yap Island

Caroline Islands

Caroline Islands, archipelago, c.830 sq mi (2,150 sq km), W Pacific, just north of the equator. The largest islands are Palau (Belau), Yap, Chuuk (Truk), Pohnpei (Ponape), and Kosrae. The islands are fertile and rich in minerals. There are deposits of phosphate, guano, bauxite, and iron; coconuts, sugarcane, and tapioca are produced. The chief exports are dried bonito, copra, and tapioca. Most of the inhabitants are Micronesian, but in the eastern islands there are some Polynesians. There is evidence of Chinese contact with the western islands in the 7th cent. A.D. The first Europeans to visit the Carolines were the Spanish in 1526, but the islands did not come under Spain's control until 1886. After the Spanish-American War the islands were sold (1899) to Germany. They were occupied in 1914 by the Japanese, who in 1920 were given a League of Nations mandate over them. Annexed to Japan in 1935, the islands were heavily bombed prior to American occupation during World War II. The Carolines were placed under U.S. administration by the United Nations in 1947, becoming part of the U.S. Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. The islands are now divided between two separate political entities: the Federated States of Micronesia, which became independent in 1986, and Palau, which became independent in 1994; both nations have compacts of free association with the United States.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Caroline Islands


an archipelago in the western part of the Pacific Ocean in Micronesia, named for the queen of the Spanish king Charles II. It is now a United Nations trust territory, under the administration of the United States since 1947. It consists of 936 individual islands or clusters of volcanic islands and atolls situated between 1° and 10°N lat. and 131° and 163° E long. The islands themselves have a total land area of 1, 320 sq km. The major groups and islands include the Palau group (Babelthuap Island, 397 sq km) and Yap (100 sq km) in the west and the Senyavin group (Ponape Island, 334 sq km), Truk (100 sq km), and Kusaie (110 sq km) in the east.

All of the larger islands (maximum altitude, 791 m) are volcanic in origin and are ringed with coral reefs. The islands of the western group are part of an arching group of islands on a ridge that is rising slowly but steadily; those of the eastern group rise directly from the ocean floor. There are deposits of organic phosphates. The climate is equatorial or subequatorial. Precipitation ranges from 2, 250 mm to 3, 000–4, 500 mm and even 6, 000 mm (in the mountains of Kusaie Island) a year. The Carolines lie in a region where an average of 25 typhoons form annually. Such storms take place at all times of the year but are most common from July to November, with a maximum in September. The volcanic islands have tropical evergreen forests of screw pines. On the mountain slopes are evergreen rain forests with tree-ferns, and bamboo at the upper borders. The drier slopes are covered with savannas. On the coral islands, coconut palms and screw pines predominate.

The native population of the Carolines consists of small ethnic groups of Micronesians, speaking various languages of the Malay-Polynesian family. Altogether, they number about 67, 000 (1969, estimate). The larger groups include Truk Islanders (26, 000) on Truk, Nomoi, and other islands; Ponapeans (15, 000) on Ponape, Pingelap, and other islands; and Palauans (12, 000) on Palau. Most of the islanders are Christians (Catholic and Protestant). English is the official language. The major occupations of the population are agriculture (coconut palm, sugarcane, taro, sweet potato), fishing, and livestock breeding.

The islands were discovered in 1528 by the Spanish navigatorSaavedra. Some of them were explored by the Russian F. P.Litke in 1828.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
But Das was well and in good spirits when he arrived on Siargao Island two months after sailing off from Caroline Islands. Tecusa Patentes, who was 30 when it happened, remembers the event to this day: 'He was calling people to help him pull his boat ashore,' she recalls.
Previous studies of violence and warfare in a selection of Polynesian islands [5] and the Caroline Islands [6] indicate that both interpersonal violence and warfare are likely to increase with total population, consistent with the broader cross-cultural studies of Ember [26], Leavitt [27], and Rosenfeld and Messner [28].
Ancestors of the Micronesians settled the Caroline Islands over 4,000 years ago.
Material examined.-Malaysia Pulau Jarak, (7895, 7896, 7898); Northern Mariana Islands: Guguan (26863), Saipan (26853), Tinian (31708); Caroline Islands: Yap (34541-34544); Irian Jaya (3722); Papua New Guinea: Milne Bay Province (16706-16710, 19967, 19969-19974, 19976-19979), Madang Province (11758, 13568), Morobe Province (13568), New Ireland Province (12015), West Sepik Province (13496-13501, 13503); Solomon Islands: Western Province, Choiseul Island (12774), Ranongga Island (12827-12830), Vangunu Island (12922, 12923), Uipi Island (12982).
The first Europeans to see the Caroline Islands were Portuguese sailors under the command of Diego DeRocha, who chanced upon the island of Yap in 1526.
CAROLINE ISLANDS: Ponape [6[degrees]52'N, 158[degrees]14'E]: 3 [male], 1 [female], Nett District [6[degrees]53'S, 158[degrees]13'W], cliff near hilltop near Nanpil, elev.
Another popular place that Whingleby has visited is Truk (now Chuuk) Lagoon in the Caroline Islands, in the western Pacific Ocean, near Guam.
BIIB a crimson fruit-dove from the Caroline Islands in the west Pacific Ocean.
It was also engaged in the capture and occupation of Guam, and the epic struggle for Saipan, in the landings in the Western Caroline Islands and supported the invasion of Okinawa.
Ken-ichi Sudo, "Rank, Hierarchy and Routes of Migration: Chieftainship in the Central Caroline Islands of Micronesia", draws attention to an interesting East-West polarity in the central Caroline islands, where inhabitants of the more westerly islands claim to originate from Yap, while those of the more easterly islands claim to originate from a problematic location, called "Kachaw" or "Achaw".
As the ship edged to the north of the Caroline Islands, the scientists held a summit meeting.
The broad and strong disturbance (LPA 92W) over the western part of the Caroline Islands eventually strengthened into a Tropical Depression 01W.