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yellow, orange, or red pigments (cyclic or acyclic isoprenoids) synthesized by bacteria, fungi, and higher plants.

Animals do not ordinarily form carotenoids, although they use them to synthesize vitamin A. The carotenoids include carotene and xanthophylls, which are widely found in plants; lyco-pene (C40H56), found in the fruits of the tomato, dog rose, and nightshade; zeaxanthin (C40H56O2), found in corn kernels; vi-olaxanthin and flavoxanthin, found in squashes and gourds; cryptoxanthin (C40H56O), found in papaya; physalin (C72H116−O4), found in the flowers and fruits of Physalis; fucoxanthin (C40H56O6), found in brown algae; crocetin (C20H24O4), found in the stigmata of saffron; and taraxanthin (C40H56O4), found in the flowers of snapdragon and coltsfoot. The relative content of the various carotenoids changes in the course of development of the plant and under the influence of environmental conditions. The concentration of carotenoids is highest in the plastids of the cells.

Carotenoids promote the fertilization of plants by stimulating the germination of pollen and the growth of the pollen tubes. They play a part in the absorption of light by plants and in the perception of light by animals. They are also a major factor in the processes of photosynthesis and oxygen transport in plants. The number and position of the double bonds in the molecules of the carotenoids determine their color; over 150 carotenoids (pigments) are known. Carotenoids with a larger number of double bonds absorb in the long-wave part of the spectrum, and their color is bright orange or red.


Goodwin, T. SramiteVnaia biokhimiia karotinoidov. Moscow, 1954. (Translated from English.)
Kretovich, V. L. Osnovy biokhimii rastenii, 5th ed. Moscow, 1971.


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Although carotenoids are more frequently reseached in the study of bird coloration, Dr.
These algae also contain some minor carotenoids among which canthaxanthin and astaxanthin, both with ketonic groups; stand out (Whittle and Casselton, 1975; Karlson et al.
The results of retention varied by variety and some carotenoids were retained via solar/sun-drying, if carried out for a limited time and under good drying conditions (low humidity and high temperature) [4, 8].
The global carotenoids market is projected to reach a value of USD 1.
Many different carotenoids have been reported in various cultivars of sea buckthorn berries [10] including lutein zeaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, and beta-carotene [3].
1]) of two carotenoids sources-astaxanthin (A50, A100 and A150) and [beta]-carotene (B50, B100 and B150)- were used for the carotenoid-enriched diets.
Though you've probably heard that minimal processing is best when it comes to prepping your vegetables, in the case of carotenoid-rich veggies, chopping, pureeing and cooking actually help your body absorb those carotenoids better.
Ats study came to an end, researchers saw that the carotenoids in corn distiller's oil add an additional value of $0.
In this work that comes as a complementary study of a clinical trial starting in 2009 and ending in 2014, RRS measurements of skin carotenoids have been carried out in breast cancer (BC) operated patients, to research the oxidative stress associated with this condition and monitor eventual variations from a five-year-long treatment aimed at reducing BC risk and recurrence by combining conventional therapies with dietary intervention [27, 28].
Now here's something you may not know--and may be preventing you from getting the full benefit of the veggies you eat: Carotenoids dissolve in fat rather than water.
Most importantly, the amount and combination of dietary fats found in avocado, as well as its abundant supply of oleic acid, provide optimal absorption of carotenoids--not just the carotenoids found in the avocado itself, but also the carotenoids found in other foods eaten at the same time.