Ruthenia

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Ruthenia

(ro͞othē`nēə), Latinized form of the word Russia. The term was applied to Ukraine in the Middle Ages when the princes of Halych briefly assumed the title kings of Ruthenia. Later, in Austria-Hungary, the term Ruthenians was used to designate the Ukrainian population of W Ukraine, which included GaliciaGalicia
, Pol. Galicja, Ukr. Halychyna, Rus. Galitsiya, historic region (32,332 sq mi/83,740 sq km), SE Poland and W Ukraine, covering the slopes of the N Carpathians and plains to the north and bordering on Slovakia in the south.
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, BukovinaBukovina
, Rom. Bucovina, Ukr. Bukovyna, historic region of E Europe, in SW Ukraine and NE Romania. Traversed by the Carpathian Mts. and the upper Prut and Siretul rivers, it is heavily forested [Bukovina
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, and Carpathian Ukraine. After 1918 the term Ruthenia was applied only to the easternmost province of Czechoslovakia, which was also known as Carpathian Ukraine, or by its Czech name, Podkarpatská Rus [Sub-Carpathian Russia]; for the history of this area from 1918, see Transcarpathian RegionTranscarpathian Region
, Ukr. Zarkarpattya Oblast or Zakarpats'ka Oblast, Rus. Zakarpatskaya Oblast, administrative region (1989 pop. 1,252,000), 4,981 sq mi (12,901 sq km), SW Ukraine, on the southwestern slopes of the Carpathian Mts.
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. The inhabitants of Carparthian Ukraine, known as Rusyns or Ruthenians, speak a language (Rusyn or Ruthenian) is closely related to Ukrainian, but culturally, however, the Rusyns were distinct from the Ukrainians, especially after 1596, when the Orthodox Church of the Western Ukraine entered into union with the Roman Catholic Church, and after 1649, when a similar union was effected in Hungary. The Ruthenian Uniate Church of the Byzantine (see Roman Catholic ChurchRoman Catholic Church,
Christian church headed by the pope, the bishop of Rome (see papacy and Peter, Saint). Its commonest title in official use is Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church.
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) thus included the majority of the Rusyns in the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, while the Orthodox Church was fully restored (17th cent.) in the Russian part of Ukraine. When most Rusyns were united (1945) in Soviet Ukraine, government pressure resulted in the secession of the Ruthenian Uniate Church from Rome and its reunion with the Russian Orthodox Church. At the same time, the Soviets classified the Rusyns, who had been divided as to whether to regard themselves as ethnically Rusyn, Russian, or Ukrainian, as Ukrainian. This position also was adopted by Communist-ruled Czechoslovakia and Poland with respect to their Rusyn minorities. In 1989 the Uniate Church broke with the Russian Orthodox Church and reestablished its ties with Rome. The end of Communist rule in E Europe also brought a resurgence of a distinct Rusyn identity, although Ukraine has not recognized Transcarpathian Rusyns as an ethnic minority, as well as a interest among some in establishing a Rusyn nation.

Ruthenia

a region of E Europe on the south side of the Carpathian Mountains: belonged to Hungary from the 14th century, to Czechoslovakia from 1918 to 1939, and was ceded to the former Soviet Union in 1945; in 1991 it became part of the newly independent Ukraine
References in periodicals archive ?
"Eternal memory and glory to the heroes of the Carpatho-Ukraine. Glory to all who gave their lives in the struggle for freedom and independence of Ukraine," the President said.
The Munich agreement of September 29, 1938 significantly weakened Czechoslovakia, which on November 7 recognized the desire of Slovakia for autonomy and, on the following day, that of Carpatho-Ukraine, which formed a government on November 11.
Carpatho-Ukraine's importance was seen as geopolitical.
Various commentators discussed the possibility of Carpatho-Ukraine being a prelude to the creation of a large Ukrainian state.
In view of the open hostility to the Ukrainian political aspirations of Poland, Rumania and Russia in their respective states, and in view of the lack of sympathy to [sic] those aspirations by the Western Democracies, is it at all surprising that the Ukrainians look with favor on the German promises of assisting them in establishing the Ukrainian State on the territories now within the [sic] Soviet Russia, Poland, Rumania and autonomous Carpatho-Ukraine?
The German foreign office instructed two researchers to analyse the issue of Carpatho-Ukraine. They recommended making the territory into a "mecca of Ukrainianism," or, in other words, a Piedmont and rallying-point for Ukrainian national consciousness through the creation of a strong publishing and educational centre (ibid.
Ironically, already in November, 1938, Hitler had dropped both the idea of Carpatho-Ukraine as a Piedmont, and the concept of a Greater Ukraine.
Many Ukrainians hoped that Carpatho-Ukraine would receive enough political and economic support from Germany to survive.
When Carpatho-Ukraine was established, pro-German sympathies began to grow among OUN supporters.
However, those who believed that Carpatho-Ukraine would be protected by Germany were deceived.
OUN activity in Carpatho-Ukraine (Carpatho-Ruthenia), which was granted autonomy after the Munich accord, created an ever-widening chasm between the Ukrainian Bureau and the radical Nationalists.
When the inevitable happened and Carpatho-Ukraine was annexed by Hungary with Hitler's blessings on the same day that the Germans marched into Prague, Makohin cursed and disavowed the OUN (LAC, MG31 D69, vol.