We need to begin any discussion of the structures of knowledge in Westernized universities with Cartesian philosophy
. Modern philosophy is supposed to have been founded by Rene Descartes (2013).
Sorell goes down to the bone of unreconstructed Cartesian philosophy
, introduces the issues of history and analytic philosophy associated with it, and then starts from the beginning with descriptions of what Descartes really said about doubt, the self, incoherence, knowledge, internalism, the justification for science, conscious experience and the mind, reason, emotion, action, anthropology, misogyny and anthropocentrism.
Chapter Two, "The Influence of the Seventeenth Century," explains how Catholic thinkers, influenced by Cartesian philosophy
in combination with soon-to-be-obsolete biological theories such as "ovism" and "preformationism," rejected the hylomorphic position officially promulgated at the Council of Vienne in 1312, to embrace the ontological position that declared a fetus fully human at conception.
In 1664 he came across Descartes's work Treatise on Man, and he then devoted himself to the careful and serious study of Cartesian philosophy
, mathematics, and science.
Indeed, it unfolded as a dialogue which was often, if not always, a dialogue with various aspects of the Cartesian philosophy
Cloth, $80.00--Descartes cuts a lively figure in this excellent collection of essays by a recognized authority on Cartesian philosophy
. Cottingham's familiarity with the Cartesian corpus enables him to argue forcefully against what he takes to be the distorting interpretive influences of contemporary analytic philosophy, contemporary secular thought, and an ecclesiastical establishment that has viewed Descartes with suspicion as the harbinger of trends both anticlerical and antireligious.
As suggested by the Introduction's title, 'Confronting the Cartesian Legacy', the book is written as a steady denunciation of the misleading metaphysical pictures inherited from the Cartesian philosophy
of mind, pictures that Hagberg admits are easily read into the autobiographer's task if it is left unexamined: 'On this model--a model deeply enforced by this unanalyzed or semi-reflective conception of autobiographical revelation--autobiographical truth is thus construed in terms of correspondence, but correspondence turned inward: that autobiographical sentence or proposition is true which corresponds to the inward fact of the case as transparently known only to the writer' (132).
Roberto Bordoli's paper examined the Socinian Hans Ludwig Wolzogen's (1599-1648) critique of Cartesian philosophy
. A materialist, Wolzogen took issue with Descartes's (1596-1650) notion of the spiritual substance and blamed Cartesian rationalism for theological controversies.
Descartes' Dutch disciple Regius is the champion of the piece because he heroically and publicly argued against the university authorities in Utrecht for the freedom to push the Cartesian philosophy
to its logical physicalist conclusions.
While subjective idealism, transcendental idealism, and absolute idealism can be regarded as a unified series of responses to Cartesian philosophy
, the idealist tradition uncovered in the first part of the book is not only prior to Descartes; it is also innocent of the anxieties generated by his philosophy.
He concedes that the debate on the Cartesian philosophy
completely eclipsed the Copernican debates, which only served to defend or to attack Cartesianism.
Howell concludes in general that the Dutch rebellion against Spanish rule encouraged the reception there of all three contentious movements: Cartesian philosophy
and Copernican astronomy as well as Reformed religion itself.