Nadler links this epistemic condition on causality as far back as medieval Islamic theologians (of some of whom 17th century Cartesians were aware).
There is not enough space to reproduce Nadler's subtle analysis here; this chapter does one of the most thorough jobs of contrasting the various flavors of occasionalism among the Cartesians.
The Cartesian view of the mind, I shall argue, mistakenly elevates reason, or conscious thought, at the expense of perception and simple acts of bodily movement.
I readily admit that both the Cartesian picture I will oppose and the alternative view offered in this article are caricatures.
Despite the apparent success of van t'Hoff's view of "atoms arranged in space," almost 150 years later we are still using the more rectangular Cartesian
coordinates to describe organic chemistry molecules.
It is relation to such writers as the radical Cartesian
and popular theologian Adriaan Koerbagh that van Bunge discusses the development of Spinozism.
As these passages illustrate, the Cartesians
have not settled on a uniform language of consciousness.
Two, they show that as Cartesian
thinking was both inspired and constrained by Christian theology, critiques of Descartes and Mind-Body dualism cannot ignore religious issues.
The central tenets of Spinoza's political theory--that true wisdom and knowledge are based on reason, that the social nature of human beings necessarily entails the drive toward self-preservation, that salvation requires knowledge, and that a healthy society (of which the highest form is a democracy) occurs only through the rule of reason--were views that were held by the members of the Amsterdam Radical Cartesian
Nightmare: An Introduction to Transcendental Sophistry.
Focusing on this dispute between the Cartesians
and the Gassendists, Lennon is arguing for a major reinterpretation of early modern philosophy.
Kant's achievement is to develop a secular version of the Cartesian
theory, one that does not need God to assure that the move from idea to object is warranted, because it locates that warrant in the conditions for the possibility of objects of experience and knowledge.