One of them is a verse associated with the Carvaka
tradition of Indian philosophy (no.
8) For classic examples of this skeptical critique of causality in the Eastern and Western philosophical traditions, see the surviving texts of the ancient Indian Carvaka
school (A Sourcebook in Indian Philosophy, ed.
Similarmente, los representantes [de la filosofia] nyaya han inventado otras maneras [de expresarse acerca de la mente], y tambien los representantes [de la filosofia] samkhya han inventado otras maneras e incluso para los carvaka
hay otros modos [de expresion].
Uniqueness of Carvaka
Philosophy in Traditional Indian Thought.
He adds that Buddhism was agnostic, the Carvaka
and Lokayata philosophies of the atheist schools generated extensive arguments about materialism (Sen: Spring 1997).
Sen refers to the powerful effect of the Lokayata and Carvaka
schools of thought from the first millennium CE which encouraged open debate, and supported the Mughal emperor Akbar in his famous open multi-religious dialogues in the late sixteenth century.
Las escuelas nastikas son budista, jaina y carvaka
European historians of Indian thought tended to forget that there had been many pre-vedic, non-vedic and even anti-vedic schools of thought which were quite popular with the people (Lokayata, Carvaka
, Kapalika, etc.
Its heritage traces back to the philosophers and poets of ancient Greece and Rome, Confucian China, and the Carvaka
movement in classical India.
In mid-second millennium doxographies in Sanskrit, the latter two groups are lumped together with Saivas as belonging among the "affirmer" (astika) schools, in contradistinction to the Buddhist and Carvaka
"denier" (nastika) schools.
Haribhadra's work enumerates six (although he acknowledges that a seventh, the Carvaka
school of materialism, might also be included).
6-9, 85), one that classes all of these traditions, along with the Nyaya of Gautama and the Vaisesika of Kapila, as astika or "orthodox" traditions--this in opposition to Advaita Vedanta, Buddhism, Jainism, the materialist Carvaka
school, and (by implication) Islam (pp.