Sen refers to the powerful effect of the Lokayata and Carvaka
schools of thought from the first millennium CE which encouraged open debate, and supported the Mughal emperor Akbar in his famous open multi-religious dialogues in the late sixteenth century.
6-9, 85), one that classes all of these traditions, along with the Nyaya of Gautama and the Vaisesika of Kapila, as astika or "orthodox" traditions--this in opposition to Advaita Vedanta, Buddhism, Jainism, the materialist Carvaka
school, and (by implication) Islam (pp.
And, indeed, like the Carvaka
, who contest even the fundamental verities of Indian "civilization," there are poeticians, like Kuntaka or Mahimabhatta, who see no explanatory value in the notion of rasa itself, much less of srngara rasa.
Haribhadra's work enumerates six (although he acknowledges that a seventh, the Carvaka
school of materialism, might also be included).
Uniqueness of Carvaka
Philosophy in Traditional Indian Thought.
He adds that Buddhism was agnostic, the Carvaka
and Lokayata philosophies of the atheist schools generated extensive arguments about materialism (Sen: Spring 1997).
Aber nirgends wird explizit geklart, wer solche Kritik auszerte, mit Ausnahme der carvakas
, der Anhanger einer materialistischen Philosophenschule, die als brahmanische Reaktion die Existenz einer 'anderen' Welt leugneten.
Leaving aside the Carvakas
, Vaisesikas and the Buddhists, all the other systems of Indian philosophy accept sabda as a distinct source of knowledge, but they also differ with one another with respect to its nature forms and a number of other aspects.
This compendium included even the materialist school of the Carvakas
There is a unifying structural theme that all Indian schools, except for the Carvakas
, share, which is that some system oriented toward moral practice needs to be in place in order to attain salvation.