Castilla, Ramón

Castilla, Ramón

(rämōn` kästē`yä), 1797–1867, president of Peru (1845–51, 1855–62). He fought under Antonio José de SucreSucre, Antonio José de
, 1795–1830, South American revolutionist, b. Cumaná, Venezuela. He joined (1811) the forces fighting for independence from Spain and rose to be the chief lieutenant of Simón Bolívar.
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 in the revolution against Spain (1821–24) in Peru and took part in the civil wars that followed. An army general, energetic and resolute, he twice eliminated his rivals by armed force to become president. He developed the guano, saltpeter, and nitrate industries, helped to reorganize finances, abolished slavery in Peru, and promulgated (1860) a new constitution that became the basis of future Peruvian government.
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