The Catalan Language
Area encompasses the joint work of the professionals of the five Catalan Self-Learning Centers of the country and the Catalan teachers of the old Adult Education which, since September 2016, have ceased to be part of the Ministry of Education and Higher Education and sign up to the Ministry of Culture, Youth and Sports.
But the "retreat from a collective ambition" actually refers to a political setback in Catalonia's movement to found a nation: Primo de Rivera's Madrid-backed dictatorship (1923-1930) put an end to the regional commonwealth or Mancommunitat that had been established in 1914 to consolidate the provincial governments in Catalonia and create cultural institutions like the Institut d'Estudis Catalans to standardize the Catalan language
They speak with such vehemence about a general ban on the Catalan language
that even educated people in Spain are convinced that you would be punished if you spoke Catalan.
prohibition of the use of the Catalan language
, the public denial of the
The Catalan language
media system requires special comment.
The Renaixenca, which emerged in the 1830s and was fully consolidated by the 1870s, defended Catalan language
and culture as a formula for the creation of a "national spirit".
The Catalan language
became the joint official language along with Spanish.
On the other hand, participants with a higher degree of contact with the Catalan language
, either through formal instruction or naturalistic use of the language, may be more aware of the differences that exist between Catalan and Spanish and treat them as two separate languages; therefore the percentage of Spanish CLI decreases in favour of English-based CLI.
In the 1920's Gaudi was on two separate occasions roughly treated by the police when taking part in demonstrations in favor of Catalan autonomy; in the second, in 1924, he was protesting the banning of the Catalan language
by the central government in Madrid.
Catalans have grievances with Madrid other than the current economic malaise -- nationalists want more prominence given to the Catalan language
and less interference in local affairs by the central government.
Miquel Strubell's essay on the past, present and future of the Catalan language
acknowledges differences of opinion among philologists as to its origins and earliest manifestations as a distinct and separate language, and provides an overview of its evolution into an important Mediterranean language in the Middle Ages, on an international political and commercial scale.
While Andreu Casero draws attention to the persistent lack of coordination between the three autonomous regions that comprise the Paisos Catalans (Catalonia, the Valencian Community, and the Balearic Islands), little or no mention is made not only of how traditionally Catalan-speaking regions outside Spain--such as Languedoc-Roussillon in southern France or the Sardinian city of Alghero--would figure into a Catalan communications strategy for the twenty-first century, but also how Catalan language
media will be carried beyond conventional cultural boundaries to other parts of the Iberian Peninsula, Europe, the Americas, and to the rest of the world.