The narrator's interest in the Catalan language
and her thorough study of words and their usage, combined with her frequent questioning of her maternal language, demonstrate how volatile language usage and choice can be to an immigrant.
However, considering the nine-community structure, the variation between 2009 and 2016 represented a growth of 20.8%, which means that the exclusion of the Catalan language
media implied a significant 23.9% difference.
One would think that retreating from "individual ambition" is tantamount to joining rather than retreating from a "collective" movement like Catalan nationalism, to which Foix was concerned to remain "loyal." But the "retreat from a collective ambition" actually refers to a political setback in Catalonia's movement to found a nation: Primo de Rivera's Madrid-backed dictatorship (1923-1930) put an end to the regional commonwealth or Mancommunitat that had been established in 1914 to consolidate the provincial governments in Catalonia and create cultural institutions like the Institut d'Estudis Catalans to standardize the Catalan language
. Hence Foix signed his work with his unmistakably Catalan surname, a gesture that was loyal in its ideological force but individualistic as a proper name.
They speak with such vehemence about a general ban on the Catalan language
that even educated people in Spain are convinced that you would be punished if you spoke Catalan.
system, and distinct culture rooted in the Catalan language
. (14) The
Like many other Catalans, they said their region was treated unfairly over taxes and cultural issues such as the Catalan language
In the Catalan language
, the word cava means cave or cellar.
The Renaixenca, which emerged in the 1830s and was fully consolidated by the 1870s, defended Catalan language
and culture as a formula for the creation of a "national spirit".
The Catalan language
became the joint official language along with Spanish.10
On the other hand, participants with a higher degree of contact with the Catalan language
, either through formal instruction or naturalistic use of the language, may be more aware of the differences that exist between Catalan and Spanish and treat them as two separate languages; therefore the percentage of Spanish CLI decreases in favour of English-based CLI.
Catalonia was the most economically advanced part of Spain, and the bilingual members of its bullish commercial elite wanted political autonomy for Catalonia and equal status for the Catalan language
. In 1883, Gaudi had attended a meeting of Catalan nationalists in the French Catalan-speaking region of Rossello (Roussillon), which defied the central government's line.
Catalans have grievances with Madrid other than the current economic malaise -- nationalists want more prominence given to the Catalan language
and less interference in local affairs by the central government.