Cateau-Cambrésis, Treaty of

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Cateau-Cambrésis, Treaty of

(kätō`-käNbrāzē`), 1559, concluded at Le Cateau, France, by representatives of Henry IIHenry II,
1519–59, king of France (1547–59), son of King Francis I. His robust physique contrasted with his weak and pliant disposition. Throughout his reign he was governed by Anne de Montmorency, by his mistress Diane de Poitiers, and by François and Charles
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 of France, Philip IIPhilip II,
1527–98, king of Spain (1556–98), king of Naples and Sicily (1554–98), and, as Philip I, king of Portugal (1580–98). Philip's Reign
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 of Spain, and Elizabeth IElizabeth I,
1533–1603, queen of England (1558–1603). Early Life

The daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, she was declared illegitimate just before the execution of her mother in 1536, but in 1544 Parliament reestablished her in the succession after
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 of England. It put an end to the 60-year conflict between France and Spain, begun with the Italian WarsItalian Wars,
1494–1559, series of regional wars brought on by the efforts of the great European powers to control the small independent states of Italy. Renaissance Italy was split into numerous rival states, most of which sought foreign alliances to increase their
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, in which Henry VIIIHenry VIII,
1491–1547, king of England (1509–47), second son and successor of Henry VII. Early Life

In his youth he was educated in the new learning of the Renaissance and developed great skill in music and sports.
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 and later Mary IMary I
(Mary Tudor), 1516–58, queen of England (1553–58), daughter of Henry VIII and Katharine of Aragón. Early Life

While Mary was a child, various husbands were proposed for her—the eldest son of Francis I of France (1518), Holy Roman
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 of England had intermittently sided against France. The terms were a triumph for Spain. France restored Savoy, except Saluzzo, to Duke Emmanuel PhilibertEmmanuel Philibert
, 1528–80, duke of Savoy (1553–80), called Ironhead. He succeeded his father, Charles III, who had been dispossessed of his duchy by Francis I of France and the Swiss in 1536.
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, acknowledged Spanish hegemony over Italy, and consented to a rectification of its border with the Spanish Netherlands. CalaisCalais
, city (1990 pop. 78,836), Pas-de-Calais dept., N France, in Picardy, on the Straits of Dover. An industrial center with a great variety of manufactures, it has been a major commercial seaport and a communications center with England since the Middle Ages.
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, however, was confirmed in French possession by England. Henry II's sister, Margaret, was given in marriage to Emmanuel Philibert of Savoy; Henry's daughter, Elizabeth of Valois, was given to Philip II of Spain.