Catherine I


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Related to Catherine I: Catherine II, Catherine the Great

Catherine I

Catherine I, 1683?–1727, czarina of Russia (1725–27). Of Livonian peasant origin, Martha Skavronskaya was a domestic when she was captured (1702) by Russian soldiers. As mistress of Aleksandr D. Menshikov she met Czar Peter I (Peter the Great), who made her his mistress. After her conversion from the Lutheran to the Orthodox Church (when she changed her name from Martha to Catherine), Peter, who had divorced his first wife, married her (1712). In 1724 he had her crowned czarina and joint ruler. Her loyalty and devotion to her difficult husband were remarkable. When Peter died without naming a successor, Menshikov and the imperial guards raised Catherine to the throne. Her policy was dominated by Menshikov. Peter II succeeded her; her daughter Elizabeth became czarina in 1741.
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Catherine I

?1684--1727, second wife of Peter the Great, whom she succeeded as empress of Russia (1725--27)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
On the other hand Ada's education represents a gap with Baines' illiteracy of the same sort as the gap that exists in Wuthering Heights' between Catherine I and Heathcliff, and later on between Hareton and Catherine II.
Hareton and Catherine II perpetuate the union of their predecessors, Heathcliff and Catherine I. Her teaching does away with the barriers that had made the latter's union impossible, so that through their marriage they can be redeemed of the sins committed in the past.
This fact affects them deeply, bringing Catherine I to a state of moral devastation and taking Ada into herself, her strong will concentrated on recovering her instrument.
From a modern point of view Catherine I's rejection of Heathcliff is complicated by its social implications, but in both cases the situation reveals different aspects of a psychological conflict related with adolescent sexuality.
After she has betrayed her heart, Catherine I can only resort to self-effacement both as her wilful punishment for the men who love her and as a way out of her own despair, while Ada will seek the realisation of her desire.
This seems to be the case with the protagonist of Wuthering Heights, Catherine I, who starves herself on the days preceding the birth of her daughter, Catherine II.
In a similar way, Catherine I's brief stay in the neighbouring mansion of The Grange implies her first contact with the refinement of society, and especially, with a romanticised view of her own femininity, by the influence of the female members of the Linton family, as surrogate mother and sister.