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Glasgow, city, Scotland
Glasgow (glăsˈgō, –kō, glăzˈgō), city (1991 pop. 688,500) and council area, S central Scotland, on the river Clyde. Glasgow is Scotland's leading seaport and largest city and is the center of the great Clydeside industrial belt. Once known for its large shipyards, metalworks, and engineering works, Glasgow's manufactured products now include electronic equipment, computers, chemicals, carpets, textiles, tobacco, and machine tools. Printing, engineering, and tourism are also important. Plagued by widespread slums, the city began a rebuilding program in the late 1950s. Many small companies have moved into industrial parks in surrounding new towns, which has decreased congestion in the inner city. It is connected to London and Edinburgh by rail and has bus and subway systems and an international airport.
Glasgow was founded in the late 6th cent. by St. Mungo (St. Kentigern), who is remembered in the city's arms and motto. The battle of Langside (1568) was fought in what is now a suburb. Glasgow's modern commercial growth began with the American tobacco trade in the 18th cent. and the cotton trade in the early 19th cent. Its proximity to the Lanarkshire coal fields and location on the Clyde (first deepened at Glasgow in 1768) aided its development as an industrial center during the mid-19th cent. By the 1990s Glasgow had largely rid itself of its image as a slum-ridden, unpleasant city by emphasizing its cultural attributes.
Points of interest include St. Mungo's Cathedral (mostly 13th cent.); Kelvingrove Art Galleries and Museum; the Hunterian Art Gallery (at Glasgow Univ., est. 1807); the Provand's Lordship (Glasgow's oldest house, built 1471); the Museum of Transport; the Burrell Museum; the Lighthouse, an architecture, design, and urban planning center; and Norman Foster's Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre (1984), popularly known as the “armadillo.” Glasgow was the center of a school of realistic art in the late 19th cent. and the home of the architect and designer Charles Rennie Mackintosh, who designed the Glasgow School of Art and Queen's Cross Church. Educational institutions include the Univ. of Glasgow (1451), the Univ. of Strathclyde, Glasgow Caledonian Univ., the City of Glasgow College, and a 17th-century public school.
See R. Crawford, On Glasgow and Edinburgh (2013).
Glasgow, city, United States
a city in northwestern Great Britain, in Scotland; located in the central Scottish lowlands, on the Clyde River, 35 km from its mouth.
Glasgow is the third largest city in the country by population (956,200 in 1968). It is the center of the conurbation of Clydeside, formed by Glasgow, its suburbs, and the cities nearby along the Clyde, including Dumbarton, Port Glasgow, and Greenock, with a combined population of 1.8 million (Lanarkshire).
Glasgow (the name is probably from the Celtic gleschu—“green glen” or “dear green place”) is generally believed to have been founded in the sixth century. In the Middle Ages, Glasgow was a small fishing settlement. In the course of the industrial revolution and the development of Great Britain’s colonial expansion, in which the Scottish bourgeoisie also took part, Glasgow (beginning with the mid-18th century) became one of the most important industrial and shipping centers in the country. During the 19th century, Glasgow’s population increased tenfold (77,000 inhabitants in 1801; 762,000 in 1901).
From the beginning of the 19th century, Glasgow was a major center of the workers’ movement; there were strikes in 1812, 1820, and 1837, in addition to Chartist demonstrations from 1835 to 1838 and in 1848. The Trades Union Council was founded in Glasgow in 1858. During World War I, the movement developed in the Clyde region. There was a major shipbuilders’ strike from January to February of 1919, and since World War II, builders’ and dockers’ strikes have occurred frequently as well as peace demonstrations, particularly in protest of the construction of an American nuclear submarine base near Glasgow in 1960.
Glasgow is an important transport junction, commercial center, and port, with approximately 10 million tons in yearly freight turnover (1965). One-third of Scotland’s industrial workers are concentrated in the Clydeside conurbation, primarily in Glasgow. Metal production on a large scale was established long ago near Glasgow on the basis of its coal and imported iron ore, the production serving as a foundation for the development of shipbuilding and other branches of heavy industry in Glasgow and the surrounding area. The Clydeside conurbation is the country’s leading shipbuilding region; one-tenth of its industrial workers are involved in shipbuilding. The shipyards (the major yards belonging to the consortia Upper Clyde Shipbuilding and Scott and Lithgow) do ship repairs and produce military vessels, tankers, freighters, and large passenger liners. The Glasgow installations also turn out ship motors, boilers, and turbines.
Approximately two-fifths of those occupied in industry are involved in some other branch of machine building, such as locomotive construction, electrical engineering, machine tool construction, airplane engine production, and the recently developed automobile industry. Industries servicing the needs of a big city are also broadly represented; these include foodstuffs, garments, printing, and textiles (including carpets).
There is a university in Glasgow (1451), as well as the Scottish Academy of Music, a number of other institutions of higher learning, art galleries, and a museum—one of the largest in Scotland.
The main residential districts of Glasgow are built densely and chaotically, frequently bordering on the industrial facilities. Spacious parks (Kelvingrove and others) and straight, broad streets with multistory buildings may be found alongside huge port and industrial sections and slums (the Gorbals district, among others). There is a Gothic cathedral (1181-1508), as well as the classicist Trades Hall (1791-99, by the architect R. Adam) and stock exchange (1829-30, by the architect D. Hamilton). One of the city’s first buildings in a more contemporary architectural style is the School of Art (1898-1909, by the architect C. R. Mackintosh).
REFERENCESKellett, J. R. Glasgow: A Concise History. London, 1967.
Oakley, C. A. The Second City, Glasgow. London, 1967.
Gallacher, W. Revolt on the Clyde, 2nd ed. London, 1949.
Reid, J. M. Glasgow. [Glasgow] 1956.
A. B. GERMAN, N. M. POL’SKAIA, and G. A. SARKIS’IAN