Cato the Younger

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Cato the Younger


Cato of Utica,

95 B.C.–46 B.C., Roman statesman, whose full name was Marcus Porcius Cato; great-grandson of Cato the ElderCato the Elder
or Cato the Censor,
Lat. Cato Major or Cato Censorius, 234–149 B.C., Roman statesman and moralist, whose full name was Marcus Porcius Cato.
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. Reared by his uncle Marcus Livius Drusus, he showed an intense devotion to the principles of the early republic. He had one of the greatest reputations for honesty and incorruptibility of any man in ancient times, and his Stoicism put him above the graft and bribery of his day. His politics were extremely conservative, and his refusal to compromise made him unpopular with certain of his colleagues. He was from the first a violent opponent of Julius CaesarCaesar, Julius
(Caius Julius Caesar), 100? B.C.–44 B.C., Roman statesman and general. Rise to Power

Although he was born into the Julian gens, one of the oldest patrician families in Rome, Caesar was always a member of the democratic or popular party.
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 and, outdoing CiceroCicero
(Marcus Tullius Cicero) or Tully,
106 B.C.–43 B.C., greatest Roman orator, famous also as a politician and a philosopher. Life

Cicero studied law and philosophy at Rome, Athens, and Rhodes.
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 in vituperation of the conspiracy of CatilineCatiline
(Lucius Sergius Catilina) , c.108 B.C.–62 B.C., Roman politician and conspirator. At first a conservative and a partisan of Sulla, he was praetor in 68 B.C. and governor of Africa in 67 B.C.
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 in 63 B.C., tried to implicate Caesar in that plot, although maintaining his fairness to all. As a result he was sent (59 B.C.) to Cyprus by ClodiusClodius
(Publius Clodius Pulcher) , d. 52 B.C., Roman politician. He belonged to the Claudian gens (see Claudius), and his name is also written as Publius Claudius Pulcher. He was brother to Appius Claudius Pulcher and to the notorious Clodia. In 62 B.C.
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 in what amounted to exile. He and his party supported PompeyPompey
(Cnaeus Pompeius Magnus) , 106 B.C.–48 B.C., Roman general, the rival of Julius Caesar. Sometimes called Pompey the Great, he was the son of Cnaeus Pompeius Strabo (consul in 89 B.C.), a commander of equivocal reputation.
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 after the break with Caesar. He accompanied Pompey across the Adriatic and held Dyrrhachium (modern Durazzo) for him until after the defeat at Pharsalus. Then he and Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio (see ScipioScipio
, ancient Roman family of the Cornelian gens. They were patricians. During the 3d and 2d cent. B.C. they were distinguished by their love of Greek culture and learning.
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, family) went to Africa and continued the struggle against Caesar there. Cato was in command at Utica. After Caesar crushed (46 B.C.) Scipio at ThapsusThapsus
, ancient N African seaport, c.100 mi (161 km) SE of Carthage in what is now Tunisia. The last stronghold of Pompey's party, the town was besieged in 46 B.C. by Julius Caesar.
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, Cato committed suicide, bidding his people make their peace with Caesar. Cicero and Marcus Junius BrutusBrutus
, in ancient Rome, a surname of the Junian gens. Lucius Junius Brutus, fl. 510 B.C., was the founder of the Roman republic. He feigned idiocy to escape death at the hands of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus (see under Tarquin).
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 (Cato's son-in-law) wrote eulogies of him while Caesar wrote his Anticato against him; the noble tragedy of his death has been the subject of many dramas. He became the symbol of probity in public life.
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References in classic literature ?
I observed, with much pleasure, that these two persons were in good intelligence with each other; and Caesar freely confessed to me, "that the greatest actions of his own life were not equal, by many degrees, to the glory of taking it away." I had the honour to have much conversation with Brutus; and was told, "that his ancestor Junius, Socrates, Epaminondas, Cato the younger, Sir Thomas More, and himself were perpetually together:" a sextumvirate, to which all the ages of the world cannot add a seventh.
46 BC Julius Caesar defeats Caecilius Metellus Scipio and Marcus Porcius Cato (Cato the Younger) in the battle of Thapsus.
While Rome's wealthiest and ablest citizens timidly evaded their duties to defend the commonweal against the impending mortal danger, Cicero, the incomparable rhetoretician, aided by Cato the Younger, dauntlessly exposed and opposed the Catiline conspiracy, which had penetrated all levels of the government.
The book opens with Cicero and Cato the Younger, and ends with a person totally unknown: one Larry Cooper who spent twenty-eight years in jail for aggravated assault and other trespasses.
In his early sixties and alone, he could have wallowed in self-pity, or even committed suicide like his friend Cato the Younger. Instead, he threw himself into writing.
When Cato the Younger, that shining star of Roman patriotism, decided on suicide rather than submission to Julius Caesar, the first thrust of his sword failed to kill him, and a doctor was summoned to sew him up; undeterred, he "pushed the physician away, tore his bowels with his hands, rent the wound still more, and so died." Thus wrote Plutarch--and Pietro Metastasio, fashioning his libretto Catone in Utica for Leonardo Vinci in 1728, honored the great historian by providing a lengthy demise for his hero.
There is a striking similarity between this predicament and that into which Cato the Younger (95-46 BC) was born in first-century BC Rome.
One of the first exponents was Roman Senator Cato the Younger. who made speeches until nightfall, the deadline for Senate business.
Will the high and mighty will again occupy the front seats, "Cato the Younger" foresees.
The ascendant Whig Party was left free to despise both its imported monarch and the disenfranchised commons, with the incorruptible Cato the Younger, patron saint of Roman Stoicism, as mascot.
Belliotti interprets the character traits and seeming thought processes of famous Romans (such as Cicero, Cato the Younger, Caesar, Seneca, and Marcus Aurelius), especially at pivotal junctures in Roman history, through the lens of the major teachings of the philosophical schools.
McClure's attempt to recover the responses of its first readers; she uses an intertextual critique of its anecdote about Cato the Younger to argue that, notwithstanding its subsequent reputation as a 'founding text of modern constitutionalism', the text should be read as 'oscillating' between the factual and the fictional in the manner of Utopia (pp.