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Following appraisal theories, our first hypothesis (H1) was that there would be a causal relation between the appraisal of self-agency and the tendency to repair: Goal-incongruent outcomes caused by the self elicit a stronger tendency to repair than goal-incongruent outcomes caused by circumstances.
These additional results, together with no bi-directional causal relation, suggest that the momentum trading theory, taking into account short-sale restrictions, may not provide an explanation for the return-volume relation for our sample countries.
Two studies, Hussain (2005) and Aisha and Khatoon (2010) while examining the causal relation between Government expenditure and Tax Revenue and between Government expenditure and Government revenue found unidirectional causality from expenditure to revenue.
The following is an example of the explicitation of causal relation.
Legs may be considered as necessary for the existence of certain kind of tables but this kind of relation is not a causal relation.
The causal relation between the stock A and the flow F is a relation of information transmission.
Well-specified empirical models are based on careful reasoning about the potential underlying causal relations and will distinguish among alternative explanations for the same phenomenon.
This implies an inverse causal relation from the value of the dollar to prices of ADRs.
The correlation between systemic oxidative stress and the degree of muscle wasting supports a possible causal relation between systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, and muscle wasting.
A scientific dialogue of conjecture and refutation at first tries to dismiss the notion of a causal relation between agent/determinant A and disease D along the four issues "temporal relation," "association," "environmental equivalence," and "population equivalence.
As Judith Reisman, president of Washington's Institute for Media Education, has asked: ``Can there be a causal relation to the many sex and sadism messages to the fact that 58,200 children were kidnapped in one year from yards, parks and streets, most to be sexually assaulted?
This description sounds like Cartesian dualism--the notion that we have an immaterial mind or soul that is somehow in causal relation with our physical body and that causes it to move as the mind directs.