Cavendish Laboratory

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Cavendish Laboratory:

see Cambridge, Univ. ofCambridge, University of,
at Cambridge, England, one of the oldest English-language universities in the world. Originating in the early 12th cent. (legend places its origin even earlier than that of the Univ.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Cavendish Laboratory


a physics laboratory at Cambridge Univeristy (Great Britain). It was founded in 1871 by the Duke of Devonshire, a relative of Cavendish, after whom it was named. The laboratory was initially used only as a training center for experimental physicists. Later (chiefly under the supervision of J. J. Thomson and E. Rutherford), it became one of the foremost scientific research laboratories in the world. The directors of the Cavendish Laboratory have been J. C. Maxwell (1871–75), J. W. Strutt (Baron Rayleigh) (1879–84), Thomson (1884–1919), Rutherford (1919–37), W. L. Bragg (1938–53), N. F. Mott (1945–71), and A. B. Pippard (since 1971). The world’s foremost physicists have worked at the laboratory, including Rutherford, C. T. R. Wilson, J. S. E. Townsend, O. W. Richardson, M. L. E. Oliphant, F. W. Aston, P. M. S. Blackett, J. Chadwick, J. D. Cockroft, J. D. Bernal, P. Langevin, P. L. Kapitsa, F. Crick, and J. Watson.

The scientific problems that have been dealt with at the Cavendish Laboratory over the years include the electric discharge in gases, nuclear physics research, crystallography, X-ray structure analysis, molecular biology, and radio astronomy. Discoveries made at the laboratory include the discovery of the electron (1897), artificial nuclear spallation (1919), and the neutron (1932). A model structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was proposed (1953) at the laboratory, and the Wilson cloud chamber (1912), the mass spectrograph (1913), and the linear accelerator (1932) were created there.


Wood, A. The Cavendish Laboratory.Cambridge, 1946.
Larsen, E. The Cavendish Laboratory, Nursery of Genius. London, 1962.
Thomson, G. P. J.J.Thomson and the Cavendish Laboratory in His Day. London, 1964.

I. D. ROZHANSKII [11–-1]

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Akshay Rao, a Research Fellow at the Cavendish Laboratory and Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, who lead the study with colleagues Philip Chow and Dr.
Crick and Watson of the United States discovered the double-helix structure of deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, in 1953 while working in Cavendish Laboratory in Britain.
It was 1953, while working in Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge, that Northampton born Crick, 36 at the time, and the American Watson, just 24, struck upon the famous double-helix structure - like a twisted ladder - of deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA.
Professor Brian Josephson, recipient of the Nobel Prize in physics in 1973, is director of the Mind-Matter Unification Project of the Theory of Condensed Matter Group at the Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, England.
In their 1953 article in Nature announcing the discovery--which was accompanied by an article by Franklin telling what she knew about DNA--Watson and Crick, of the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge, England, said merely that they had been "stimulated by a knowledge of the general nature of the unpublished experimental results and ideas of Dr.
What would seem to be the final rift arose after an informal conference at the Cavendish Laboratory in the summer of 1951 at which Wilkins reported on the DNA work being done at King's.
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Thomson of Cambridge University's Cavendish Laboratory. Rutherford adapted his detector of very fast transient currents for use as a frequency meter and used it to measure the dielectric properties of electrical insulators.
Thornson at the Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge, England.
A team at the UK's Cambridge University Cavendish Laboratory has developed a memory design that could lead to multi-gigabit chips the size of a thumbnail replacing current DRAM and Flash memory designs.