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Cambridge, University of
The 31 colleges presently associated with Cambridge, with their dates of founding, are Peterhouse, or St. Peter's (1284), Clare (1326), Pembroke (1347), Gonville (1348; refounded as Gonville and Caius, 1558), Trinity Hall (1350), Corpus Christi (1352), King's (1441), Queens' (1448), St. Catharine's (1473), Jesus (1496), Christ's (1505), St. John's (1511), Magdalene (1542; pronounced môdˈlĭn), Trinity (1546), Emmanuel (1584), Sidney Sussex (1596), Downing (1800), Homerton (1824; for students of education), Girton (1869), Selwyn (1882), Hughes (founded 1885 as Cambridge Training College for Women; approved foundation 1968), St. Edmund's (1896), Churchill (1960), Fitzwilliam (founded 1869 as a noncollegiate society, became a college 1966), and Robinson (1977).
The women's colleges are Newnham (1871), New Hall (1954), and Lucy Cavendish (1965). Girton (formerly a women's college) and Newnham were pioneers in university education for women. Although women took university examinations in the 1880s and after 1921 were awarded degrees, their colleges were not admitted to full university status until 1948. Darwin College (1964), Wolfson College (1965; founded as University College, renamed 1973), and Clare Hall (1966) are graduate institutions.
Curriculum and Facilities
Cambridge was a center of the new learning of the Renaissance and of the theology of the Reformation; in modern times it has excelled in science. It has faculties of classics, divinity, English, architecture and history of art, modern and medieval languages, Oriental studies, music, economics and politics, history, law, philosophy, education, engineering, earth sciences and geography, mathematics, biology, archaeology and anthropology, physics and chemistry, and medicine. There are also departments of veterinary medicine, chemical engineering, land economy, and the history and philosophy of science as well as a computer laboratory.
Cambridge's famous Cavendish Laboratory of experimental physics was opened in 1873; the Cavendish professors have been outstanding names in physics. The chapel of King's College (1446), the Fitzwilliam Museum, and the botanic gardens are notable features of the university. There are also centers for African, Latin American, Middle Eastern, and South Asian studies; international law; archaeological research; medical genetics; and superconduvtivity research. Instruction at Cambridge is similar to the system at Oxford, except that tutors are called supervisors and the degree examination is known as the tripos. Until 1948, Cambridge sent two representatives to Parliament. Cambridge Univ. Press dates from the 16th cent.
See E. Vale, Cambridge and Its Colleges (1959); F. A. Reeve, Cambridge (1964); C. R. Benstead, Portrait of Cambridge (1968).
a physics laboratory at Cambridge Univeristy (Great Britain). It was founded in 1871 by the Duke of Devonshire, a relative of Cavendish, after whom it was named. The laboratory was initially used only as a training center for experimental physicists. Later (chiefly under the supervision of J. J. Thomson and E. Rutherford), it became one of the foremost scientific research laboratories in the world. The directors of the Cavendish Laboratory have been J. C. Maxwell (1871–75), J. W. Strutt (Baron Rayleigh) (1879–84), Thomson (1884–1919), Rutherford (1919–37), W. L. Bragg (1938–53), N. F. Mott (1945–71), and A. B. Pippard (since 1971). The world’s foremost physicists have worked at the laboratory, including Rutherford, C. T. R. Wilson, J. S. E. Townsend, O. W. Richardson, M. L. E. Oliphant, F. W. Aston, P. M. S. Blackett, J. Chadwick, J. D. Cockroft, J. D. Bernal, P. Langevin, P. L. Kapitsa, F. Crick, and J. Watson.
The scientific problems that have been dealt with at the Cavendish Laboratory over the years include the electric discharge in gases, nuclear physics research, crystallography, X-ray structure analysis, molecular biology, and radio astronomy. Discoveries made at the laboratory include the discovery of the electron (1897), artificial nuclear spallation (1919), and the neutron (1932). A model structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was proposed (1953) at the laboratory, and the Wilson cloud chamber (1912), the mass spectrograph (1913), and the linear accelerator (1932) were created there.
REFERENCESWood, A. The Cavendish Laboratory.Cambridge, 1946.
Larsen, E. The Cavendish Laboratory, Nursery of Genius. London, 1962.
Thomson, G. P. J.J.Thomson and the Cavendish Laboratory in His Day. London, 1964.
I. D. ROZHANSKII [11–-1]