For between two and three years the Cimbri must have devastated the province of Hispania Citerior and fought against the Celtiberians
who finally forced their retreat from Iberia.
Moreover, other Celtiberians
have not allied themselves with the city.
The self-immolation of an entire besieged Celtiberian
settlement in the face of the Roman forces of Scipio Africanus is not a result of an Olympian decree or any other numinous agents.
Seeking a favorable site to continue their investigation of the relationship of nucleated settlements to their landscape in Spain during the crucial transition period of the first millennium BC, a team of archaeologists found La Rioja in the upper reaches of the Ebro Valley, straddling the interface between the Celtiberian
heartland of central Iberia and the Atlantic zone of the Bay of Biscay.
Less felicitous is the analysis of fertility imagery within the framework of Celtic mythology and so-called Celtiberian
Due to better outcrop conditions in the Celtiberian
Chains (Spain) four sections could be investigated: the La Almunia de Dona Godina section (AL, Fig.
Principal wars: Third Macedonian War (172-167); Celtiberian
War (151-150); Third Punic War (149-146); Numantine War (137-133).
In my 2008 book, The Ambivalence of Imperial Discourse, I dedicate three chapters to the representation and interpretation of historical characters--namely Viriatus, Jugurtha, and Scipio Aemilianus--and the historical events surrounding the final siege and destruction of the Celtiberian
city in Cervantes's play.
(2007): "Analysis of a Celtiberian
protective paste and its possible use by Arevaci warriors", e-Keltoi, 5, pp.
He shows how some 85 inscriptions from about 750-450 BC closely resemble the Celtiberian
spoken in east-central Spain, Gaulish across the Pyrenees, and the insular Celtic languages still spoken across what is now the English Channel.
It consisted of one hundred and twenty one celtiberian
denarii, together with silver jewelry, most of them fragmented.