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in construction, the consolidation of soils, rocks, and stone or concrete masonry by injecting a cement solution or suspension into voids, cracks, or pores. The process is used to strengthen the beddings of structures; to provide seepage barriers; and to waterproof rocks in tunnels, mine shafts, and stone and concrete masonry, as well as to reduce the porosity of such masonry.
in nonferrous metallurgy, a hydrometallurgical process based on the displacement of the more electropositive metals from solutions of their compounds by less electropositive metals in the solid state. For example, the normal electrode potential of copper is +0.344 volts, and that of zinc is –0.762 volts; the difference between the potentials makes it possible to obtain the reaction Cu2+solution + Znmetal → Zn2+solution + Cumetal. The greater the difference in potentials, the lower the content of precipitated metal that will remain in the solution. Cementation is extensively used to remove impurities from solutions and to recover metals from solutions. The process can also be used to precipitate metals from molten slags.
REFERENCESPlaksin, I. N., and D. M. Iukhtanov. Gidrometallurgiia. Moscow, 1949.
Maslenitskii, I. N., and L. V. Chugaev. Metallurgiia blagorodnykh melallov. Moscow, 1972.
Naboichenko, S. S., and V. I. Smirnov. Gidrometallurgiia medi. Moscow, 1974.