Centralization


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Related to Centralization: formalization

Centralization

 

in biology, the evolutionary development of a single organ or a single organic system formed by the union of individual cells, tissues, or organs that perform related functions. An example of centralization is the concentration of diffusely distributed nerve cells into nerve trunks in the turbellarians; another example is the development of the vertebrates’ kidney from the metameric nephridia of the cephalochordata. Centralization is usually associated with the broadening and intensification of functions.

References in periodicals archive ?
What has caused the trend toward centralization in the administration of credit and A/R has been a change in global realities that have caused a shift in business rules.
The theoretical arguments cited above, both for and against redistributional centralization, are based largely on allocative efficiency criteria.
In Democracy in America, Tocqueville distinguishes two types of centralization: governmental and administrative.
Specifically, centralization (Bennett, 1998a; Lawrence and Robinson, 2007; Leblanc and Kelloway, 2002; Sims, 2010; Sprouse, 1992) and formalization (Hoffman, 2008; Pulich and Tourigny, 2004; Zimmerman, 2001) are the two organizational structure components that passively appear most often.
Moreover, in several studies researchers have reported finding a negative relationship between structural factors (such as centralization and formalization) and innovative behavior (Aiken & Hage, 1971; Damanpour, 1991; Hurley & Hult, 1998; Pierce & Delbecq, 1977); however, these scholars did not include empowerment in their study and, consequently, the mediating role of empowerment in the relationship between organizational structure and innovative behavior was overlooked.
External fixation and centralization versus external fixation and ulnar osteotomy: the treatment of radial dysplasia using the resolved total angle of deformity.
In this study, we show that debt centralization could result in soft budget constraint (SBC) of local governments by building and analyzing a stylized model that might be new to the literature.
Thomas Holstein of the Centre for Organismal Studies demonstrated how the origin of nerve cell centralization can be traced back to the diffuse nerve net of simple and original lower animals like the sea anemone.
With this transaction, Popular completes the sales of all three regions as planned and will focus its efforts on completing the back office centralization and on strengthening PCB's presence in the selected markets.
As part of this trend, the Panel is applying increased scrutiny to requests for centralization and articulating reasons not to establish new MDLs.
It will replace several diverse systems to deliver new efficiencies through centralization, standardization, and workflow automation.
RIGA - There are certain problems with the management of state assets in Latvia, and greater centralization is required to solve them, but the management of state assets must be professional, politically neutral, and not overly expensive, believe representatives of government-run companies who participated in a debate organized by the business portal Nozare.lv.