census

(redirected from Cenus)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Financial.
Related to Cenus: Population census

census,

periodic official count of the number of persons and their condition and of the resources of a country. In ancient times, among the Jews and Romans, such enumeration was mainly for taxation and conscription purposes. The introduction of the modern census—a periodic and thorough statistical review—began in the 17th cent. The first efforts to count people in areas larger than cities at regular periods were in French Canada (1665), Sweden (1749), the Italian states (1770), and the United States (1790). The first British census was taken in 1801. The Belgian census of 1846, directed by Adolphe QueteletQuetelet, Adolphe
, 1796–1874, Belgian statistician and astronomer. He was the first director (1828) of the Royal Observatory at Brussels. As supervisor of statistics for Belgium (from 1830), he developed many of the rules governing modern census taking and stimulated
..... Click the link for more information.
, was the most influential in its time because it introduced a careful analysis and critical evaluation of the data compiled. Most industrialized countries now take a census every 5 to 10 years.

Scientific census-taking in the United States began with the decennial census of 1850, when the scope and methods were greatly improved by making the individual the unit of study. In 1902 the Bureau of the Census was established in the Dept. of the Interior; the following year it was transferred to the Dept. of Commerce and Labor and remained in the Dept. of Commerce when the Dept. of Labor was separated (1913). In addition to being a vital source of statistical data about the nation, information from the U.S. census is also used to allocate federal resources.

The government was criticized and also sued for undercounting the homeless and minorities in the 1990 census. In 1996 the Supreme Court ruled that the decision to adjust the count is left to the discretion of the secretary of commerce. The government proposed remedying the problem of undercounting through the use of statistical adjustments to the 2000 census, but the Supreme Court ruled (1998) against the plan, and the traditional head-count method prevailed. In 2001 the government again decided to use unadjusted census figures. About 3.3 million people, largely minorities, were estimated to have been missed by the 2000 census; a smaller number were thought to have been counted twice. Unadjusted census figures are generally believed to favor Republicans in the drawing of districts for the House of Representatives.

Bibliography

See W. S. Holt, The Bureau of the Census (1929, repr. 1974); F. Yates, Sampling Methods for Censuses and Surveys (4th ed. 1980); M. J. Anderson, The American Census (1990); S. Roberts, Who We Are: A Portrait of America Based on the 1990 Census (1994).

census

a government-sponsored, universal and obligatory survey of all individuals in a geographical area. The British Census is a major source of SECONDARY DATA because:
  1. it offers data on a comprehensive range of topics, many of which are not included in other surveys;
  2. its large size permits the analysis of some topics in greater detail;
  3. its size and scope permit the analysis of numerous interrelationships.

With the introduction of punched-card processing in 1911, and the use of computers in 1961, the amount of information that can be collected and processed has been dramatically increased.

The Census Act, 1920, requires that a census be taken in Britain at intervals of not less than five years. With the exception of the 1966 Census (so far the only quinquennial census), censuses have been taken in Britain since 1801 (except in 1941 when there was no census).

The earliest censuses (1801-31) took the form of simple head counts. Self-completion forms were introduced in 1841. Since 1961 the census has involved most households completing a simple questionnaire and every tenth household completing a more detailed questionnaire.

The census has a number of important applications for the sociologist, including:

  1. studies of SOCIAL STRATIFICATION;
  2. analysis of changing trends reflected in housing, education, work, etc;
  3. studies of particular groups. Following demand from local authorities, academic researchers, market-research organizations, central government, and other organizations, Small Area Statistics have been introduced, based on the enumeration districts which comprise 500 people on average, which may also be aggregated to gain a picture of a particular area such as a parliamentary constituency, a school catchment area or a health authority district.

The census has also become a fruitful area for historical research and there is a growing interest in time-series research, or cliometrics in which modern statistical techniques are applied to historical data. See also SOCIAL SURVEY, FAMILY EXPENDITURE SURVEY, GENERAL HOUSEHOLD SURVEY, OFFICIAL STATISTICS, STATISTICS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS.

Census

 

(1) In ancient Rome, the registration of citizens, with indication of their possessions, for the purpose of determining the citizens’ sociopolitical, military, and tax status. According to classical tradition, the introduction of the census is ascribed to Servius Tullius (sixth century B.C.), who divided the citizenry into five classes, or orders, determined on the basis of property qualifications. A citizen’s status was evidently originally dependent on his land or movable property; later it came to depend on his money. A census was taken once every five years. The census taking was supervised at first by the king and later by the consul; in 443 B.C. the office of censor was created for this purpose, but in the imperial age the emperor assumed the functions of the censor.

(2) In medieval Western and Central Europe, a quitrent or tax paid by the peasants. The census was the same as the czynsz, or Zins.

census

[′sen·səs]
(statistics)
A complete counting of a population, as opposed to a partial counting or sampling.

census

1. an official periodic count of a population including such information as sex, age, occupation, etc.
2. (in ancient Rome) a registration of the population and a property evaluation for purposes of taxation
www.census.gov/ipc/www/idbnew.html
References in periodicals archive ?
Sun platforms are the preferred hardware for Cenus, because they provide a range of performance options that allow the company to deliver a system based on the user's need, neither overbuilt nor underpowered.
As the Cenus Layer 7 Routing Technology has unprecedented speed of execution and it can deliver the performance and scalability of an ASIC based system on a general purpose processor.
We have chosen Cenus Technologies as the exclusive vendor for its application layer networking needs, in large part because the NPX(TM) system contains proprietary technologies which enable functionalities not provided by any other vendor," states Central Access CEO Jim Milam.
The partnership between Central Access and Cenus Technologies provides the national educational market with networking services that meet the requirements in the areas of performance, scalability, extensibility and security.
The Cenus system is a unique value proposition that solves for the problems that occur when heterogeneous legacy network infrastructures need to be able to communicate with each other; a substantial issue for the newly formed Department of Homeland Security.
Cenus Technologies is very honored to be recognized and invited to participate with the other members of the Bay Area and Silicon Valley technology elite in the collaboration towards developing the most advanced systems possible in fulfilling the President's mission for an effective department of Homeland Security," says Eric Johnson, CEO of Cenus Technologies.
Cenus Technologies and fellow delegation members will be asked to discuss the just-released report and address the potential of homeland security research to stimulate California and the Bay Area's technology sector and state and regional economic development, and the unique capacity of California and the Bay Area to provide leadership on this national priority.
Morris, Chairman of BASIC, describes the region's leadership position as resulting from a history of entrepreneurial companies such as Cenus Technologies, ".
What Cenus has developed is a means of virtualizing a network of globally distributed servers into a single load-balanced cluster, unifying their resources for storage and application support to provide greater performance and enhanced reliability.
Cenus had to weigh many factors in the ultimate decision as to how to best develop its technology for deployment.
This new vision is one of distributed, ubiquitous network-based computing, where servers -- the repositories of content, applications, storage and services -- are interconnected to each other and to clients using Cenus Technologies Layer 7 routing technology.