cerebral palsy

(redirected from Cerebal palsy)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical.

cerebral palsy

(sərē`brəl pôl`zē), disability caused by brain damage before or during birth or in the first years, resulting in a loss of voluntary muscular control and coordination. Although the exact cause is unknown, apparent predisposing factors include disease (e.g., rubellarubella
or German measles,
acute infectious disease of children and young adults. It is caused by a filterable virus that is spread by droplet spray from the respiratory tract of an infected individual.
..... Click the link for more information.
, genital herpes simplexherpes simplex
, an acute viral infection of the skin characterized by one or more painful, itching blisters filled with clear fluid. It is caused by either of two herpes simplex viruses: Type 1, herpes labialis,
..... Click the link for more information.
), very low infant birthweight (less than 3.3 lb [1.5 kg]), and injury or physical abuse. Maternal smoking, alcohol consumption, and ingestion of certain drugs can also contribute. Most cases are associated with prenatal problems; about 10% of the cases are thought to be due to oxygen deficiency during the birth process. The severity of the affliction is dependent on the extent of the brain damage. Those with mild cases may have only a few affected muscles, while severe cases can result in total loss of coordination or paralysis.

There are many different forms of the disability, each caused by damage to a different area of the brain. The spastic type, accounting for over half of the cases, results from damage to the motor areas of the cerebral cortex and causes the affected muscles to be contracted and overresponsive to stimuli. Athetoid cerebral palsy, caused by damage to the basal ganglia, results in continual, involuntary writhing movements. Choreic cerebral palsy is characterized by jerking, flailing movements. Ataxic cerebral palsy, involving the cerebellum, causes either an impaired sense of balance or a lack of coordinated movements. In addition to these types, which may occur singly or together, emotional, visual, and hearing impairments and convulsive seizures may be present. Some of those affected have a degree of mental retardation, but in many the intellect is unimpaired.

There is no cure for the disorder. Treatment usually includes physical, occupational, and speech therapy, and sometimes includes biofeedback and muscle relaxants. Sometimes appliances such as braces and surgery are helpful. Measures that appear to help decrease the incidence of cerebral palsy include maternal immunization against rubella, maternal abstention from smoking and alcohol consumption, magnesium sulfate given in premature labor, treatment for Rh incompatibility (see blood groupsblood groups,
differentiation of blood by type, classified according to immunological (antigenic) properties, which are determined by specific substances on the surface of red blood cells.
..... Click the link for more information.
), and treatment of hyperbilirubinemia (jaundicejaundice
, abnormal condition in which the body fluids and tissues, particularly the skin and eyes, take on a yellowish color as a result of an excess of bilirubin. During the normal breakdown of old erythrocytes (red blood cells), their hemoglobin is converted into bilirubin.
..... Click the link for more information.
) in the newborn.

cerebral palsy

[sə′rē·brəl ′pȯl·zē]
(medicine)
Any nonprogressive motor disorder in humans caused by brain damage incurred during fetal development.

cerebral palsy

a nonprogressive impairment of muscular function and weakness of the limbs, caused by lack of oxygen to the brain immediately after birth, brain injury during birth, or viral infection
References in periodicals archive ?
amazing friend Richard Hopley who, despite the challenges of living a full life with cerebal palsy, this week hosted his own book launch at the Piazza Cafe at the Metropolitan Cathedral to celebrate the publication of a selection of his amazing poetry called 'River Book' which has been accepted by Waterstones as a stockist.
The five-year-old can't walk or stand unaided because if her cerebal palsy which was diagnosed at just nine months.
Keira Fletcher, from Great Barr, has suffered from cerebal palsy since a serious brain injury at birth and also has epilepsy, gastro-oesphageal reflux and feeding problems.
Cerebal Palsy sufferer Nadine told a trial at Dundee Sheriff Court that the pair were best friends and had lived at the flat since 2011.
CHAMPION: Borough of Kirklees swimmer, Maisie Burnand-Martin of Scapegoat Hill in action and (top) with her medals which she won at the Cerebal Palsy National Championships.
Family flowers only please, donations if so desired to Cumbria Cerebal Palsy.
Suzanne, 42, said: "It was coming straight for David, who has cerebal palsy and is in a wheelchair.
I have been told to just concentrate on securing a place in the cerebal palsy team for the World Championships in Conneticut - anything after that is a bonus, '' said Michael.
The former St James primary school teacher, from Evesham, in Worcestershire, hopes this charity stunt will highlight the need for better long-term care for those with profound disabilities like his daughter, who has cerebal palsy.
THE William Keown Trust was set up in 1980 by Bill Keown, who was born with cerebal palsy, to recognise the courage and achievement of people with disabilities via The Adult Achievement Awards.
As a McGuire child gets older, the parents explain to the youngster about cerebal palsy.