cerebral palsy

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cerebral palsy

(sərē`brəl pôl`zē), disability caused by brain damage before or during birth or in the first years, resulting in a loss of voluntary muscular control and coordination. Although the exact cause is unknown, apparent predisposing factors include disease (e.g., rubellarubella
or German measles,
acute infectious disease of children and young adults. It is caused by a filterable virus that is spread by droplet spray from the respiratory tract of an infected individual.
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, genital herpes simplexherpes simplex
, an acute viral infection of the skin characterized by one or more painful, itching blisters filled with clear fluid. It is caused by either of two herpes simplex viruses: Type 1, herpes labialis,
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), very low infant birthweight (less than 3.3 lb [1.5 kg]), and injury or physical abuse. Maternal smoking, alcohol consumption, and ingestion of certain drugs can also contribute. Most cases are associated with prenatal problems; about 10% of the cases are thought to be due to oxygen deficiency during the birth process. The severity of the affliction is dependent on the extent of the brain damage. Those with mild cases may have only a few affected muscles, while severe cases can result in total loss of coordination or paralysis.

There are many different forms of the disability, each caused by damage to a different area of the brain. The spastic type, accounting for over half of the cases, results from damage to the motor areas of the cerebral cortex and causes the affected muscles to be contracted and overresponsive to stimuli. Athetoid cerebral palsy, caused by damage to the basal ganglia, results in continual, involuntary writhing movements. Choreic cerebral palsy is characterized by jerking, flailing movements. Ataxic cerebral palsy, involving the cerebellum, causes either an impaired sense of balance or a lack of coordinated movements. In addition to these types, which may occur singly or together, emotional, visual, and hearing impairments and convulsive seizures may be present. Some of those affected have a degree of mental retardation, but in many the intellect is unimpaired.

There is no cure for the disorder. Treatment usually includes physical, occupational, and speech therapy, and sometimes includes biofeedback and muscle relaxants. Sometimes appliances such as braces and surgery are helpful. Measures that appear to help decrease the incidence of cerebral palsy include maternal immunization against rubella, maternal abstention from smoking and alcohol consumption, magnesium sulfate given in premature labor, treatment for Rh incompatibility (see blood groupsblood groups,
differentiation of blood by type, classified according to immunological (antigenic) properties, which are determined by specific substances on the surface of red blood cells.
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), and treatment of hyperbilirubinemia (jaundicejaundice
, abnormal condition in which the body fluids and tissues, particularly the skin and eyes, take on a yellowish color as a result of an excess of bilirubin. During the normal breakdown of old erythrocytes (red blood cells), their hemoglobin is converted into bilirubin.
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) in the newborn.

cerebral palsy

[sə′rē·brəl ′pȯl·zē]
(medicine)
Any nonprogressive motor disorder in humans caused by brain damage incurred during fetal development.

cerebral palsy

a nonprogressive impairment of muscular function and weakness of the limbs, caused by lack of oxygen to the brain immediately after birth, brain injury during birth, or viral infection
References in periodicals archive ?
As a McGuire child gets older, the parents explain to the youngster about cerebal palsy.
The Res-Q-Vac is a hand-operated, portable, lightweight suctioning device and can be used at home for suctioning patients with tracheotomies, swallowing disorders, excessive fluid or phlegm, Cerebal Palsy and any time suction is needed in the naso-pharynx.
mother Jacqueline Wilce said: "David so pleased to be able to wear his school uniform for the first time" David has cerebal palsy but is attending a mainstream school where all the staff and children make him so welcome.
Held at the Middlesbrough Teaching and Learning Centre in Middlesbrough, the event saw recognition for teams from Middlesbrough, York, Scarborough and The Dales, but the end was dedicated to the cerebal palsy team and coaches, who received gold medals for their achievements.
Emma's twins from a previous relationship, Archie and Tilly, are aged two-anda-half and Archie has cerebal palsy.
My third has cerebal palsy and I noted straight away there is no provision in the Kirkby plan for disabled parking.
Lee Bettles, who suffers with cerebal palsy, was struck as he crossed Far Gosford Street, in Coventry.
Dave said: "If an able-bodied child wants to play football he might have the choice of 10 clubs in his local area but if you have a child with cerebal palsy they may not know where they can go to access a football club so it was all about giving these children an insight into sport, some quality coaching and then the information to pursue the sport they most enjoyed.
Charlie's Wallof Smiles, a memorial to cerebal palsy patient Charlotte Ogden, is just one of the works pupils at Birkdale Primary, in Southport, have created with the help of their artist in residence.
The Government is actually asking county councils to fund extra training for all teachers, not just SENCOs and in my own area Staffordshire County Council has promised pounds 3 million over the next three years to better equip themselves with how to deal with children with SEN -this is not just Downs Syndrome children, but children with learning difficulties, behavourial problems, cerebal palsy, dyslexia, dyspraxia, autism, Aspergers Syndrome to name but a few.
Dens-daft Petra Rice never misses a match and will be at the national stadium despite suffering from cerebal palsy and being confined to a wheelchair.