screening

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screening

[′skrēn·iŋ]
(atomic physics)
The reduction of the electric field about a nucleus by the space charge of the surrounding electrons.
(electromagnetism)
(engineering)
The separation of a mixture of grains of various sizes into two or more size-range portions by means of a porous or woven-mesh screening media.
The removal of solid particles from a liquid-solid mixture by means of a screen.
The material that has passed through a screen.
(industrial engineering)
The elimination of defective pieces from a lot by inspection for specified defects. Also known as detailing.

screening

the use of academic qualifications as a means of selecting among candidates for employment, where it is the general level of academic qualification which is decisive rather than the particular content of the education. In this process, an employer may use educational qualifications, or sometimes also the type of institution attended, as a proxy for ‘general intelligence’, ‘perseverance and motivation’, or other 'social background’, instead of being interested in the specific content of the education received. see also CULTURAL CAPITAL.

According to the screening hypothesis, it is the screening process rather than any direct economic return on education which explains part of the correlation between level of education and level of income. This hypothesis provides an account of the effects of education which is at odds with other hypotheses (compare HUMAN CAPITAL). See also CREDENTIALISM, CULTURAL CAPITAL.

Screening

 

the sorting on screens of bulk materials according to particle size. Screening is used to separate coal, ore. building materials, and other bulk materials into fractions or to sort out particles of a given size. For example, in the production of crushed gravel (about 200 million cu m in the USSR in 1970). a mass of raw sand and gravel is sorted out into five fractions (70–40 mm. 40–20 mm, 20–10 mm, 10–5 mm, and less than 5 mm). During screening, the material is separated into layers as it moves along the sieve of the screen: the larger the particles, the higher the layer along which they move. Particles that are smaller than the screen openings (so-called lower grade) fall through the openings upon reaching the screen’s surface (screen underflow); larger particles (so-called upper grade) slide along the sieve and form the screen overflow. Because of limitations on the length of the screen, not all particles that are smaller than the sieve openings fall through; some remain in the screen overflow, contaminating it and reducing the quantity of the underflow.

The efficiency of screening depends on many factors: the size and shape of the particles in the initial material and the load it exerts on the screen, the type of screen, and the size and shape of the openings in the sieve, its length, and its angle of inclination. The maximum efficiency of trommels is 60–70 percent: of shaking screens. 70–80 percent; and of vibrating screens, 90–98 percent. Screening on sieves with openings of 3 mm and more is widespread in industry; openings of 1 mm are rarely encountered. Hydraulic classification or air separation is usually used to sort materials containing particles smaller than 1–3 mm. Since screening ensures high-quality sorting, its use is spreading, particularly the use of sieves with small openings.

Screening

A mechanical method of separating a mixture of solid particles into fractions by size. The mixture to be separated, called the feed, is passed over a screen surface containing openings of definite size. Particles smaller than the openings fall through the screen and are collected as undersize. Particles larger than the openings slide off the screen and are caught as oversize. A single screen separates the feed into only two fractions. Two or more screens may be operated in series to give additional fractions. Screening occasionally is done wet, but most commonly it is done dry.

Industrial screens may be constructed of metal bars, perforated or slotted metal plates, woven wire cloth, or bolting cloth. The openings are usually square but may be circular or rectangular. See Mechanical classification, Mechanical separation techniques, Sedimentation (industry)

screening

The application of technical or other means which are intended to detect weapons, explosives or other dangerous devices that may be used to commit an act of unlawful inference (ICAO).
References in periodicals archive ?
The Bethesda System 2001 explicitly states that minimum cellularity criteria should be used for cervical cytology specimens, and there may be clinical instances (such as atrophy) when fewer cells are adequate.
Annual cervical cytology screening is recommended, since young women are at elevated risk for acquiring high-risk HPV that is associated with premalignant cervical disease.
experienced and established cytology departments in the UK complying with the UK cervical screening programme (British Association of Cytopathology - October 2015 v2)code of practice, to provide A cervical Cytology Service to the Department of Health & Social Care%s Pathology Lab at Noble%s Hospital.
However, more prospective observational studies are required to stablish if the ZIKV is capable by itself to cause cervical cytology changes compatible with ASC-US.
The knowledge that hrHPV is a more sensitive test for cervical cancer and its precursors, as well as the relatively lower sensitivity of cytology, is the foundation for transitioning from primary screening with cervical cytology to primary screening with HPV testing.
Table 1 Population Draft Recommendation 2017 Recommendation 2012 Women aged 21-29 Cervical cytology Cervical cytology years alone every 3 years alone every 3 years Women aged 30-65 Cervical cytology alone Cotesting (cervical years every 3 years OR hrHPV cytology and testing alone every hrHPV testing) 5 years every 5 years
PAP TESTS: Annual cervical cytology screening not recommended for women 30-65 years of age.
A CERVICAL CANCER screening interval of 5 years or longer may be safe for women with one or more negative cotests using the high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) test and cervical cytology, according to the results of a large observational study.
Conventional method was thought to be getting more of confounding factors along with cells from cervix, but both the methods are considered equally reliable for detecting changes in cervical cytology.
USPSTF Recommendations (2012) Women 21-29 Screen every 3 years with cervical cytology years old (Pap) alone Women 30-65 Screen with a combination of cytology and human years old papillomavirus (HPV) testing every 5 years Table 2.